Taxonomy

Cnestus Sampson, 1911: 383.

Synonyms

Tosaxyleborus Murayama, 1950: 49. Browne, 1955: 368.

Diagnosis

Cnestus are typically moderate to large in size 1.8−5.5 mm long, and stout 1.54−2.75 times as long as wide. Cnestus is a morphologically variable genus but can be distinguished by the eye feebly emarginate; lateral margin of the pronotum carinate from base to at least the midpoint; submentum depressed; procoxae narrowly separated; antennal club obliquely truncate, types 1 or 2 with segment 1 completely or almost covering the posterior face; antennal funicle 3 or 4 segmented; scutellum flat, flush with elytral surface. Most species have a mesonotal mycangium on the pronotal base.

May be confused with

Anisandrus, Hadrodemius, and Xylosandrus. Cnestus is closely related to Anisandrus, Hadrodemius and Xylosandrus, all of which possess a mesonotal mycangium and the associated dense tuft of hairs at the scutellar area and pronotal base (Gohli et al. 2017, Johnson et al. 2018).

Distribution

Distributed throughout Asia and Oceania. One species is established in the United States (Schiefer and Bright 2004).

Gallery system

The species, as far as is known, are twig and shoot-borers, and the gallery system is typical of such species with a short radial or circumferential gallery running to the middle of the stem, and longitudinal branches up and down the stem in which the brood develop.