All morphological characters used in the key and diagnoses are defined in the glossary and illustrated in the key and glossary. Xyleborini specific characters for the antennal club and pronotal shape follow those given by Hulcr et al. (2007).


Measurements were taken from the specimen’s dorsal perspectivefor a maximum of 5 individuals per species. Length was measured from the pronotal apex to the elytral apex. Width was measured at the widest part of the pronotum. Proportions are given as the ratio of length to width.

Distribution data

Distribution data were collected from Wood and Bright 1992, Beaver and Liu 2010, Knížek 2011, Beaver et al. 2014, Zheng et al. 2017, Smith et al. 2018a, 2018b, Mandelshtam et al. 2018, Lin et al. 2019, Park et al. 2020; Smith et al. 2020b). Despite the efforts of this project and Smith et al. 2020b, the Southeast Asian fauna remains poorly known for many countries, and a lack of published records does not necessarily reflect actual species distribution.


Images were taken at Michigan State University with a Visionary Digital Passport II system (Palmyra, VA) using a Canon EOS 5D Mark II, 65.0 mm Canon Macro photo lens, Canon Speedlite transmitter ST-E2, Dynalite MH2015 road flash heads (Union, NJ), and a Stack Shot (Cognisys, Inc, Kingsley, MI) controlled by Zerene Stacker 1.04 (Zerene Systems, Richland WA). Forest Research Institute (Dehradun, India) specimens were imaged using MicroPublisher 5.0RTV (Q Imaging, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada) magnified with an Olympus 8ZX16 stereoscope. Lighting consisted of four fiber optic arms diffused by surrounding the specimen with vellum paper. Images were produced in 0.02 - 0.04 mm image slices controlled by AutoMontage. Montages of the sliced images for each specimen were assembled using Helicon Focus Mac Pro 6.7.1 (Helicon Soft, Kharkov, Ukraine). Montage photos were edited in Adobe Photoshop Elements 13 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA).