Glossary of Terms
Aciculate- covered with narrow, more or less parallel ridges.
Acute- pointed; terminating in or forming less than a 90-degree angle.
Acuminate- tapering to a long point.
Anterior- front; in front of; in the direction toward the head.
Apex- the part of a joint or segment that is opposite the base by which it is attached; the posterior portion of the elytra; the anterior portion of the pronotum. The distal portion of the antennal club.
Apical- pertaining to the end, tip, or outermost part of a structure.
Arcuate- arched, bow-like.
Armature- sclerotized teeth, processes or coarse sculpturing.
Asperate- roughened; having the surface finely or moderately roughened with acute elevations or asperites.
Asperities- surface roughenings, dot-like sharp elevations or teeth small or moderate surface roughenings; from coarse granules to prominent elevations, especially the elevations on the anterior portion of the pronotum.
Base- the part of any appendage or structure that is nearest the body; the posterior portion of the pronotum; the anterior portion of the elytra.
Bilobed- divided into two lobes.
Bisinuate- having two sinuations or undulations.
Bristle- a short, stiff hair.
Capitate- refers to a structure in which the distal portion is swollen, forming a subglobular mass.
Carina, carinae- a narrow ridge or keel.
Cirrus- a group of setae that form a conspicuous, slender pencil.
Club- the enlarged terminal part of the antennae.
Confused- irregular; punctures, crenulations, or pubescence not in regular rows.
Contiguous- touching or in contact [when in a normal position].
Constricted- evenly but abruptly narrowed.
Corneous- of a hard, smooth horn-like texture.
Costa- an elevated ridge, rounded at it's crest.
Coxa, coxae- the basal segment of a leg by which it is attached to the body.
Crenulations- blunt, rounded teeth or scallops; evenly rounded and deeply curved.
Declivity- the usually steeply sloped posterior face of the elytra, or the steeply sloping anterior face of the pronotum.
Declivous- sloping gradually downward.
Disc- the central portion of a major anatomical area, such as the pronotum or elytra; the elytral disc extends laterally from the suture to about the fourth striae and backward to near the declivity.
Distal- pertaining to the portion of an appendage farthest from the body.
Dorsal- of or pertaining to the back or upper side.
Elytron, elytra- the hardened or thickened front wings of beetles which serve as coverings of the hind wings, usually meeting in a straight line down the dorsum.
Emarginate- with a notch cut from the margin, as in a n eye, or the distal margin of a tarsal segment.
Emargination- a notch breaking the margin.
Entire- with a smooth, unbroken outline, as in an eye; without emargination.
Episternal area- pertaining to the anterior area of the lateral or pleural portion of a thoracic segment directly above the coxa.
Epistoma- the lower portion of the front of the head between the frons and the mouth cavity.
Epistomal brush- a linear arrangement of hairs arising from the epistoma.
Epistomal margin- the anterior or dorsal margin of the mouth cavity.
Epistomal process- a flattened or convex dorsal prominence arising from the base of the epistoma, with its apex reaching toward the epistomal margin.
Face- the outer surface of any part.
Femur- the leg segment between the trochanter and the tibia.
Frons- the front part of the head extending from the epistoma to the upper level of the eyes.
Funicle- the portion of the antenna between the scape and the club, comprised of one to seven segments.
Glabrous- without hair or setae.
Granulate- having small granules on the surface.
Impressed- imprinted, as if by pressure; having a depressed area or making.
Intercoxal- between the coxae.
Interstriae- the area between two elytral striae.
Lateral- of or pertaining to the side.
Medial, median- in the middle; along the body’s midline.
Mesad, mesally- toward the midline of the body.
Mesothoracic- belonging to the middle (second) segment of the thorax.
Metathoracic- belonging to the posterior (third) segment of the thorax.
Metepisternum- a narrow triangular plate situated laterally, between the coxae and the elytra, visible for its entire length in all genera except those in the tribes of Pityophthorini and Corthylini.
Oblique- slanted, diagonal, or inclined; neither parallel nor perpendicular.
Obliquely truncate- applied to the antennal club, club thickened at the base with the apical segments appearing telescoped at an angle.
Obsolete- not present.
Obtuse- blunt; an angle greater than 90 degrees.
Posterior- behind or hindmost part.
Posterolateral- having to do with the rear or side area.
Pro- anterior; a prefix meaning before, in front of.
Process- an unarticulated prolongation of any part of the surface.
Procurved- arcuate curving anteriorly; with the convexity in front (n-shaped); applied to antennal club sutures.
Pronotum- the dorsal piece, or sclerite, of the prothorax.
Prosternum- the ventral piece, or sclerite, of the prothorax.
Prosternal intercoxal piece- the median, intercoxal extension of the prosternum.
Prothorax- the first segment of the thorax.
Protibia- the tibia of the pair of legs closest to the head.
Pubescence- a dense or sparse covering of fine hair.
Punctate- bearing punctures.
Puncture- a small impression on the surface of the body, like that made by a needle.
Recumbent- reclining, not erect, applied to hair or scales.
Recurved- arcuate; curving posteriorly with the convexity behind (U-shaped); applied to antennal club sutures.
Reticulate- marked with a network of fine, impressed or elevated lines.
Scale- one of numerous flattened outgrowths of cuticle covering part or all of the pronotum, elytra, or both.
Scape- the elongate first segment of the antennae.
Sclerite- a piece of the body wall bounded by sutures.
Sculpture- the elevated or impressed markings on the surface of the body.
Scutellum- the small circular or triangular piece between the bases of the elytra
Seta, setae- a short, stiff, pointed hair.
Setose, Setiferous- having setae.
Sinuation- an undulating margin.
Spatulate- wide and flat.
Spine- a thorn-shaped, generally pointed process emerging from a surface, normally longer than wide; an immovable, elongate, acute process.
Sternite- the ventral piece, or sclerite, of a body segment, particularly of the abdomen
Stria, striae- the parallel, impressed, usually punctured lines on the elytra from base to apex, a narrow, impressed line, usually longitudinal.
Sub- used as a prefix meaning slightly less than.
Sulcate- deeply furrowed, channeled or grooved.
Suture- generally a groove or narrow membranous area between sclerites; the longitudinal line on the dorsum marking the junction of the elytra; a line of juncture between two antennal club segments.
Tarsus, tarsi- the leg segment between the femur and the tarsus.
Tibia- the fourth leg segment from the body from which the tarsus (foot) originates.
Tooth- a short, acute process, often conical.
Transverse- crosswise; at right angles to the longitudinal.
Trochanter- the leg segment between the coxa and the femur.
Tubercle- a coarse granule or small tooth; a bump, or generally rounded process emerging from a surface,usually not longer than wide.
Uniseriate- in one row.
Variegated- having discrete markings of different colors.
Ventrad- toward the underside of the body; downward.
Vestiture- general surface covering of hairs or scales.
Definitions from James LaBonte, Oregon Dept. of Agriculture and adaptations from Borer et al. 1989, and Torre-Bueno, 1973.