Glossary



A

aciculate : sketched lines which appear to have been scratched with a fine needle

acuminate : tapering gradually to a sharp point

alternate : occurring at a determined succession at a specific place

anterior face of club : the side visible when the club is elevated against the head or not visible when club is down and sensing a surface; it usually contains sutures and setae

apical : situated at the apex or extreme outer edge of a structure or appendage

armed : having a sclerotized surface structure, giving a rough texture; may serve as defense

aseptate : not divided, or containing septa or partitions

asperate : of a surface or texture which is rough

asperities : pertaining to surface roughenings or dot-like elevations that are not pointed

asymmetrical : not identical on both sides of a central line


B

basal : situated at the base or inner edge and proximal to the main body

base : part of any appendage that is nearest the body

bisinuate : displaying two sinuations

bisulcate : a structure that is grooved in two places, often contiguous at both sides of a central line

bituberculate : having two tubercles or pointed sclerotized structures

bristle-like setae : setae that appear stiff, based on an impression conveyed by size and shape


C

capitate : an elongate structure with a terminal knob-like or head-like enlargement

carina : a ridge or elevation of the cuticle

chitinized : an integument hardened by chitin, the primary substance which hardens the exoskeleton of insects; a hardened area of the exoskeleton

circumtropical : distributed throughout the tropics

club : the apical segment of the insect antennae that is enlarged or thickened such that it is anatomically differentiated from the preceding segments

constricted : contracted or compressed at places along the length of a structure

contiguous : sharing an edge or boundary; touching

convergently : structures coming together at an extreme or apex

coxae : the basal or proximal segment of the insect leg to its body

crenulations : structures on the surface of the integument an having irregular, wavy, or serrate outline


D

declivital margin : the point where the declivity starts descending from the top or sides of the elytra; also the apical extreme of the elytra

declivity : the apical portion of the beetle elytra that slopes downward

dentate : a structure or surface that has tooth-like prominences; in Scolytinae they are smaller than tubercles

depressed : a structure that is flattened or impressed

dimorphic : a structure that occurs in two different forms, such as color, shape, or size

dimorphism : a genetically controlled condition in which individuals of a species are characterized by distinct patterns of color, size, or shape

disc : the central upper surface of any anatomical structure or body part

distal : near the free end of an appendage; away from the body


E

elytra : the two external and hardened or sclerotized forewings of adult Coleoptera, often appearing leather-like in texture

elytral suture : the longitudinal junction line between each elytron of adult Coleoptera

emarginate : notched or indented

epistoma : the sclerotized region between the lower frontal area and the mouth parts

epistomal : pertaining to the epistoma

excavated : a pit, groove, or depression of the integument; a concave area on a surface


F

fossa : a significant depression on the body surface

frons : the upper anterior portion of the head capsule

funicle : the antennal segments located between the scape and the club in some Coleoptera


G

granules : a small grain-like elevation

grooved : having a long, narrow furrow or channel


H

hair-like setae : setae that are thin and similar to a hair

holarctic realm : a faunal region comprising Europe, North Africa, Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, and North America down to Mexico

horn : a conspicuous, pointed process on the head


I

interstriae : longitudinally arranged lines, often flat or raised, often having setae, and located between the striae on the elytron


M

marginal : pertaining to the more or less narrow part of a surface within the edge

metepisternum : the sclerite between the first and second lateral thoracic sutures

monospecific : a genus that only contains one known species


N

neotropical region : the zoogeographical area encompassing South America, Central America, and the West Indies


O

obliquely truncate : pertaining to a structure abruptly and concavely cut

obovate : inversely egg shaped (ovate), with the narrow end basal

obsolete : pertaining to a structure which is indistinct, not well developed, or almost absent

ornamented : having markings or structures on the esclerotized regions of the integument, such as setae, tubercles, or granules

ovate : egg shaped, with the narrow end apically


P

pantropical : pertains to organism occurring in the tropical regions of all continents

posterior face : the side not visible when the club is elevated against the head or visible when the club is down and sensing a surface; it usually has no sutures

pregula : a ventral sclerite immediately posterior to the mouth parts, impressed in the subtribe Xyleborina

pregular region : a ventral region immediately posterior to the mouth parts, impressed in the subtribe Xyleborina

procoxae : extra segment occasionally preceding coxa (hip joint) of the first or anterior pair of legs of arthropods

procurved : pertaining to structure (antennae, setae) which is basally perpendicular to the body and whose apical part is curved anteriorly

prominent : raised, elevated, or produced beyond the horizontal plane of a structure

pronotum : the upper or dorsal surface of the first thoracic segment

prothoracic intercoxal piece : a ventral, often triangular, sclerite of the prothorax that extends posteriorly between the anterior coxae

prothoracic precoxal ridge : an elevated, sclerotized ridge extending from the anterior coxae ventrally towards the head

pseudolamellate : an antennal club composed of opposing leaf-like surfaces which are only partially separated

pubescent : covered with closely set setae

punctures : a small impression on the hard outer parts of the insect body like those made by a needle


Q

quadrate : square or nearly so


R

recumbent : applied to setae which lay in the surface of the body

recurved : bent backward or downward as a smiley face

rhomboid : in the shape of a rhombus

rugulose : minutely rugose or wrinkled


S

scale-like setae : setae that are wider than hair

scape : the first and basal segment of the insect's antennae

sculpture : markings or patterns of impression or elevation on the body's surface

scutellum : a shield-like bony plate or scale, as on the thorax of some insects

septate : having a septum or septa

septum : a wall, partition, or internal projection within a cavity or hollow organ

serrations : a series or set of saw-like teeth or notches

setae : a hollow, often slender and hair-like cuticular projection

sinuate : descriptive of a narrow and winding thin structure or margin of a feature

sparse : scattered, spread irregularly and some distance apart

spatulate : shaped like a spatual, typically broad at the apex and tapered at the base

spine : a stiff, pointed, tapered process on the surface of the integument, usually long

striae : longitudinally arranged lines often impressed or marked by punctures that are located between the interstriae on the Coleopteran elytron

strigose : marked with fine, close-set grooves, ridges, or streaks

subacutely : moderately acutely shaped

subcircular : almost circular in shape

subcontiguous : pertaining to adjacent structures, margins, or surfaces that are in contact but are not united or fused

subtriangular : nearly or almost triangular in shape

subtropical : descriptive of distribution or occurrence above or below the tropics

sulcate : having narrow, deep furrows or grooves

summit : the highest point or part; the top

sutural : pertaining to a suture such as the elytral suture or midline between the two wings

sutural notch : a notch at the meeting point of the elytral suture

sutures : a seam or seam-like line of contact between two sclerites or hardened body parts immovably connected

symmetrical : identical on both sides of a central line


T

tarsomere : any of the subsegments of the tarsus in the insect's foot

tibia : the fourth division of an insect's leg, between the femur and the tarsus

tubercles : stiff, pointed, tapered processes on the surface of the integument, usually shorter than a spine


U

unarmed : having no granules, teeth, tubercles, spines, or other protective structures


V

vestiture : a surface covering of scales or setae on the body, wing, or other appendage