Hypothenemus


Type species

Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood

Adapted from Wood 1982, p. 875-911


Diagnosis

Hypothenemus can be distinguished from similar Cryphalina by the combined characters of the 3- to 5-segmented antennal funicle and the oval club with the first suture almost straight and only partly septate, whereas it is entirely septate in Procryphalus Hopkins, and the other two are procurved to slightly bisinuate. It is also distinguishable by its vestiture of erect and light colored thick bristles.


Description

Species in this genus range from 0.6 to 2.2 mm in length and are from 2.0 to 2.7 times as long as wide. Their color ranges from pale yellowish brown to black. The pronotum is usually wider than long with lateral margins with a raised line; the anterior half is asperate and its margin armed by a series of teeth. The scutellum is large. The declivity is convex and unarmed. The vestiture consists of light and erect bristles. The anterior margin of the compound eye is emarginated. The scape is usually longer than their usually 5-segmented funicle, which varies from 4-segmented in females of smaller species to 3-segmented in most H. birmanus. In general, males usually have one less segment than females. The ovate club is usually constricted, partly septate at the first suture which is straight, and has one or two more sutures which are procurved to slightly bisinuate. The procoxae are contiguous.


Distribution

Worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas


World fauna

Number of species: 179, Native species: 14, Introduced species: 11


Established exotic species

Hypothenemus africanus is present in Alabama and Louisiana.

Hypothenemus areccae, H. birmanus, H. brunneus, H. californicus, H. columbi, H. javanus, H. obscurus and H. setosus are present in Florida.

Hypothenemus crudiae is present in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Kansas.

Hypothenemus erectus is present in Texas.


Hosts

Abies, Pinus, Picea, Pseudotsuga, Sequoia