Solanum xanti A. Gray

Family: Solanaceae

Pertinent Synonyms & Notes (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other synonyms)


Pertinent Common Names (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other common names)

chaparral nightshade

Primary Disseminule Types

fruit (not likely to be dispersed directly to grape bunches), seed

Description (diagnostics are in brown)

Fruit a berry with numerous seeds, globose, green, 6–10 mm in diameter, deciduous with persistent calyx.

Seed ± obovate to rounded-reniform in outline, typically notched along margin where hilum occurs, strongly compressed, cross-section narrowly elliptic to fusiform, 1.5–2 mm long x 1.4–1.9 mm wide x 0.6–0.8 mm thick. Surface semiglossy, may be particularly dull or rough when dried bits of the mucilaginous envelope remain; otherwise, surface is reticulate-pitted, with the sinuous cell walls forming a maze of minute undulating ridges (may also have striations or appressed hair-like or scale-like cell wall structures on top of the reticulations and interspaces), yellowish- to pale orangish-brown.

Hilum marginal, in notch, elliptic or oval to ovate, ± sunken especially at the larger end of the scar, whitish or same color as testa, 0.5–0.8 mm long.

Similar Species

Compare to Similar Species of Solanum and Similar Species of Lycium & Physalis.

Risk Assessment (codes in yellow or red indicate cause for concern; assessments are current as of mid-2011; click AUQP, NZBORIC, or NZBPI for access to the most recent versions of these databases and possible assessment changes)