Juncus bufonius L.

Family: Juncaceae

Pertinent Synonyms & Notes (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other synonyms)


Pertinent Common Names (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other common names)

toad rush

Primary Disseminule Type


Description (diagnostics are in brown)

Fruit a dehiscent (three-valvular) capsule, green or tan to reddish-brown, oblong to obovoid, 2.5–4(5) mm long (shorter than attached perianth parts) x 1–1.5 mm wide, tip broadly acute, containing numerous seeds.

Seed ovate to elliptic in outline, cross-section terete, 0.2–0.6 mm long x 0.1–0.3 mm wide, minutely apiculate at one or both ends, often with a small bit of translucent tissue attached. Surface shiny, smooth (where translucent membrane persists) or faintly to distinctly reticulate (main ridges longitudinal with some fainter cross-ridges, ridges same color or darker than remaining surface), dark yellow to yellowish brown, typically darker brown at one or both ends.

Hilum basal, punctate, <0.1 mm across, granular, surrounded by a dark brown circular area.

Embryo occupying basal 1/4 of seed.

Risk Assessment (codes in yellow or red indicate cause for concern; assessments are current as of mid-2011; click AUQP, NZBORIC, or NZBPI for access to the most recent versions of these databases and possible assessment changes)