Abutilon theophrasti Medik.

Family: Malvaceae

Pertinent Synonyms & Notes (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other synonyms)


Pertinent Common Names (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other common names)

butterprint, velvet leaf

Primary Disseminule Type


Description (diagnostics are in brown)

Fruit a capsule up to 2.5 cm diameter, nearly black, hairy, consists of a cup-like ring of 12–15 beaked, woody segments that do not separate at maturity. Each segment opens by vertical slit on the outer face to release 1–3 seeds.

Seed kidney-shaped to nearly triangular in outline, prominently notched along margin where hilum occurs, compressed (thickened along the margin opposite the hilum and usually with a rounded, concave area on each face, creating a bilobed cross-section), (2)3–4 mm long x 2.2–3.2 mm wide x 1.5–1.9 mm thick. Surface dull, purplish-gray to brown or black, minutely honeycombed, typically sparsely covered (thicker around notch) with tiny branched hairs with orangish bases.

Hilum marginal in notch, covered by a funicular remnant that partially breaks away from the seed at maturity to form a flap.

Embryo folded, distinctive and easily seen on cross-section.

Risk Assessment (codes in yellow or red indicate cause for concern; assessments are current as of mid-2011; click AUQP, NZBORIC, or NZBPI for access to the most recent versions of these databases and possible assessment changes)