Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.

Family: Poaceae, Tribe: Paniceae

Pertinent Synonyms & Notes (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other synonyms)

Panicum crusgalli L., Pennisetum crusgalli Baumg.

Pertinent Common Names (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other common names)


Primary Disseminule Type


Description (diagnostics are in brown)

Spikelets in pairs or clusters of 3 or 4, with disarticulation at base of each spikelet. Spikelet sessile or pedicelled, ovate to lanceolate or elliptic, dorsally compressed, plano-convex (D-shaped in profile), 3–5 mm long x 1.1–2.3 mm wide, consisting of 1 fertile floret and 1 basal sterile floret without rachilla extension.

Glumes dissimilar, membranous, sometimes purple-tinged, without keels, 3–5-veined, surface scabrid, apices cuspidate. Lower glume oblate, 1.2–1.7 mm long (0.3–0.4 length of spikelet), enwrapping base of spikelet. Upper glume ovate, very convex, 3–4 mm long, surface hispid, with bristly hairs on veins.

Sterile lemma similar to upper glume, ovate, same length as spikelet, 5–7-veined, surface hispid, apex acuminate, awnless or 1-awned, awn from tip of lemma measuring 0–50 mm long. Sterile palea subequal to sterile lemma, broad, hyaline, keels finely ciliate.

Fertile lemma ovate-elliptic, dorsally compressed, very convex in profile, 2–3.5 mm long, indurate, pallid or yellow, glabrous, shiny, without keel, 5-veined, margins involute, apex acute to acuminate, laterally pinched, withered, differentiated by a line of minute hairs at base of tip.

Fertile palea subequal to fertile lemma, brownish yellow or grayish, indurate, reflexed at apex.

Caryopsis round to oblong, dorsally compressed, 1.2–2.4 mm long x 1–1.8 mm wide, brownish, embryo 0.6–0.9 length of caryopsis, hilum ± round, dark.

Similar Species

Similar Species Comparison Chart

Risk Assessment (codes in yellow or red indicate cause for concern; assessments are current as of mid-2011; click AUQP, NZBORIC, or NZBPI for access to the most recent versions of these databases and possible assessment changes)