Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

Family: Poaceae, Tribe: Paniceae

Pertinent Synonyms & Notes (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other synonyms)

Panicum colonum L.

Pertinent Common Names (particularly those used in California; go to GRIN for other common names)


Primary Disseminule Type


Description (diagnostics are in brown)

Spikelets occurring in pairs or clusters of 3 or 4, with disarticulation at base of each spikelet. Spikelet sessile, elliptic or ovate to round, dorsally compressed, plano-convex (D-shaped in profile), 2–3 mm long x 1–1.5 mm wide, apex acute to cuspidate, consisting of 1 fertile floret and 1 basal sterile floret without rachilla extension.

Glumes dissimilar, ovate, membranous, often with some purple coloring, without keels, apices cuspidate. Lower glume 0.5–1.2 mm long (0.3–0.4 length of spikelet), enwrapping base of spikelet, 3–5-veined, surface scabrous. Upper glume 2–3 mm long, 5-veined, surface pubescent with bristly hairs on some veins.

Sterile lemma similar to upper glume (membranous), ovate, same length as spikelet, 5-veined, surface pubescent, apex acute to cuspidate, awnless. Sterile palea subequal to sterile lemma, hyaline.

Fertile lemma ovate to elliptic, dorsally compressed, convex in profile, 2–3 mm long, indurate, pallid or yellow, glabrous, shiny, without keel, 5-veined, margins involute, apex obtuse to acute, laterally pinched, strongly differentiated including being withered.

Fertile palea subequal to fertile lemma, indurate, reflexed at apex.

Caryopsis round to obovate, dorsally compressed, 1.2–1.6 mm long x ca. 1–1.3 mm wide, whitish, embryo 0.6–0.9 length of caryopsis, hilum ± round, dark.

Similar Species

Similar Species Comparison Chart

Risk Assessment (codes in yellow or red indicate cause for concern; assessments are current as of mid-2011; click AUQP, NZBORIC, or NZBPI for access to the most recent versions of these databases and possible assessment changes)