Family

Coccidae

Catalog

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Common name

Chinese wax scale

Field characters

Body elliptical; convex in lateral view; body reddish brown; with a thick wax covering; eggs laid in chamber under body of adult; ovisac absent. The following description is from Gimpel et al. (1974). Test: Wet wax rectangular in dorsal view, hemispherical laterally, without horn, white in younger females, reddish brown in older specimens, with marginal flange large in older specimens, normally partially hiding lateral filaments, divided into 1 dorsal and 6 lateral plates on young females, with nuclei, plates normally absent on old specimens, without nuclei. Dry wax with filaments as follows: cephalic filament trifurcate, with rounded apices; anterolateral, posterolateral, and mediolateral filaments simple; caudal filaments weakly bifurcate; dorsal dry wax of first and second instars forming central cap, surrounded by small dorsomedial nucleus; dorsal dry wax not tilted. Stigmatic wax bands present near both pairs of spiracles, anterior bands directed dorsally, filamentous wax confined to stigmatic areas. Primarily on leaves and stems.

Validation characters

Ventral body margin with filamentous ducts; stigmatic setae hemispherical, largest seta conical with slightly rounded apex; about 34 stigmatic setae laterad of each stigmatic furrow, of 2 intergrading sizes, arranged in 3 or 4 irregular rows; with dorsomedial clear area. Other characters: Tubular ducts without expanded inner filament, present in small numbers near anal plates and on head; dorsal setae cylindrical, apex slightly rounded or acute; marginal setae simple; 1 pair of prevulvar setae (often obscured by anal plates); multilocular pores abundant near vulva, with few on preceding abdominal segments; multilocular pores anterior of anterior spiracle, when present, predominantly with 5 loculi, about same size as pores laterad of anterior spiracle; tibio-tarsal sclerosis present; claw with or without small denticle; claw digitules equal; antennae usually 7-segmented, rarely 6-segmented; area around anal region sclerotized, forming protuberance; anal plates rounded, without distinct angles; each anal plate with 2 subapical setae, 3 or 4 apical setae, and 1 subdiscal seta; anal fold with 4 fringe setae; preopercular pores inconspicuous, restricted to area anterior of anal plates; without submarginal tubercles.

Comparison

Ceroplastes sinensis resembles C. cirripediformis Comstock but can be distinguished by having dorsal setae with acute or rounded apices (capitate in C. cirripediformis), with filamentous ducts (absent in C. cirripediformis), and 2 subapical setae on anal plate (1 in C. cirripediformis).

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted 17 times on a variety of hosts at U. S. ports-of-entry between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from Australia, Azores, Ecuador, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Tahiti, and The U.S. Virgin Isalnds. We also have examined specimens taken in quarantine from Bermuda (Begonia, Tamarix); France (Citrus); Greece (Citrus); Italy (Citrus, Laurus, Vitis); Madeira (Citrus); New Zealand (Feijoa, Grevillea); Portugal (Citrus, Diospyros, Ilex, Punica, Rosmarinus); Puerto Rico (unknown host); Spain (Citrus, Punica); The U. S. Virgin Islands (Ixora). ScaleNet includes hosts in more than 50 families from all zoogeographic regions. One species of Ceroplastes other than C. ceriferus (Fabricius), C. cirripediformis Comstock, C. floridensis Comstock, C. japonicus Green, C. rubens Maskell, C. rusci (Linneaus), C. sinensis and C. stellifer (Westwood) has been intercepted at a U. S. port-of-entry, C. cistudiformis Cockerell (Mexico, on Punica).

Important references

Gill1988; GimpelMiDa1974; QinGu1994.

All references mentioned

Ceroplastes sinensis