Acknowledgments

IDphy was developed through collaboration between the USDA APHIS PPQ S&T Beltsville Laboratory and the USDA APHIS PPQ S&T Identification Technology Program (ITP) at the Fort Collins Laboratory. Funding was provided by USDA through the Farm Bill in 2013 and 2014.

Lead author Dr. Gloria Abad would like to thank her co-authors: Dr. Treena Burgess for extraordinary support implementing the fact sheets for 25 species that she described; Dr. John Bienapfl for support developing the glossary and molecular SOPs and for generating sequences; and Ms Leandra Knight for assisting with the fact sheets, including taking photos of the cultures, adding links for voucher sequences, and content for host and distribution. Dr. Abad would also like to thank co-author Dr. Michael Coffey for culturing the ex-holotypes and other selected specimens from the “World Phytophthora Collection” at University of California Riverside so we could document the morphological and molecular characters, and Ms Amanda Redford for outstanding work implementing the website and many other contributions.

Dr. Treena Burgess thanks past and present staff and students in the Centre for Phytophthora Science and Management, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, for contributions in her research with Phytophthora.

Special acknowledgment is presented to Dr. Subodh Srivastava, Bioinformatician at the Beltsville Laboratory, for his outstanding contributions in bioinformatics, submitting more than 1000 sequences of seven genes from the ex-types and well-authenticated specimens to NCBI, along with whole genome sequences of the ex-types of P. citricola, P. kernoviae, P. melonis and P. ramorum.

Special acknowledgment is presented to M.Sc. Krysta Jennings from the Beltsville Laboratory for her exceptional contributions toward IDphy from February 2016 to January 2018. During this time, Ms Jennings maintained the Beltsville Lab culture collection on four different media, refreshing them monthly, and she also generated mycelia for DNA extractions for all specimens. She conducted DNA extractions on 28 ex-types and processed five selected specimens and one ex-type for PCR amplifications and sequence analysis with seven genes. Krysta also assisted with photography of cultures and reproductive structures and adding data to the website in its earliest stages of development.

Additional special acknowledgements are presented to Clinton Greub (former Beltsville Laboratory scientist) for setting up the system to document the photographs of colony morphology for IDphy, and M.Sc. Marco Galvez (Beltsville Laboratory) for his special contribution processing some of the sequences submitted by the laboratory for this project.

This work would not have been possible without the help of numerous scientists, which we attempted to list on this page. The efforts of everyone listed here are greatly appreciated, and we apologize in advance if anyone who contributed to this project was omitted.

The authors express their appreciation to the following contributors who provided support for the implementation of IDphy:

  • Dr. Yilmaz Balci (USDA APHIS PPQ, formerly at University of Maryland) for his exceptional contributions at the early stages of the development of IDphy.

  • Vickie Brewster (USDA APHIS PPQ Pest, Pathogens and Biocontrol Permits) for providing support in the implementation of an early version of the Lucid key (with 128 species) based on the tabular key developed by Gloria Abad and for taking morphology photos of many species.

  • Dr. Jin-Hsing Huang at the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute for refining the morphological methods designed by Gloria Abad.

  • Dr. Leonardo Schena at Agrarian Department, Mediterranean University Reggio Calabria, Italy for providing a new set of primers for the RAS-related protein gene (YPT1).

  • Dr. Scot Nelson at University of Hawaii for the contribution of numerous photos with symptoms of diseases caused by Phytophthora species.

  • Dr. Santa Olga Cacciola, Associate Professor of Plant Pathology at the Department of Agriculture, Food, and Environment, University of Catania, Italy, for providing selected isolates of Phytophthora cambivora A1 and A2 from Italy and for providing photos of the species she recently described: P. lacustris, P. mekongensis, P. oleae, P. prodigiosa, P. tyrrhenica, and P. vulcanica.

  • Dr. Ronald French at USDA APHIS PPQ Plant Germplasm Quarantine Program in Beltsville, Maryland, USA for contributing numerous photos with symptoms of diseases caused by Phytophthora infestans and P. capsici.

  • Drs. Sara Green and April Amstrong at Centre for Forestry and Climate Change (CFCC), Forest Research, Northern Res. Station, Roslin, Scotland for providing photos of hosts infected with Phytophthora austrocedri in Scotland.

  • Drs. Bruno Scanu and Antonio Franceschini at Università degli Studi di Sassari, Italy for providing photos of hosts affected by Phytophthora cambivora in Italy and for photos of morphology and disease symptoms of several other Phytophthora species.

  • Dr. Nicholas Brazee at Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA for providing photos of the morphology of asexual and sexual phases of Phytophthora caryae.

  • Drs. Alfredo Cravador and Dina Neves, Universidade do Algarve-FCT, Portugal for providing photos of hosts affected by Phytophthora cinnamomi in Alentejo region, Portugal.

  • Dr. Beatrice Henricot at The Royal Horticultural Society, Wisley, Surrey, UK for providing photos of Phytophthora pachypleura.

  • Dr. Lucas A. Shuttleworth at University of Sidney, Australia for providing photos of Phytophthora gondwanensis.

  • Drs. Koji Kageyama, Mohammad Z. Rahman, and Meherun Naher at Gifu University, Japan for providing photos of P. asiatica, P. chrysanthemi, P. lilii, P. nagai, and P. psuedolactucae.

  • Dr. Paul Reeser at Oregon State University for providing photos of P. borealis, P. chlamydospora, P. nemorosa, P. pluvialis, P. riparia, P. rosacearum, P. sansomeana, and P. siskiyouensis.

The following individuals provided very helpful reviews of a beta version of this website, including the associated keys and SOPs, and we thank them for their suggestions and contributions: Cheryl Blomquist, California Department of Food and Agriculture; Tyler Bourret, University of California-Davis; Tom Creswell, Purdue University; Sylvia Fernandez-Pavia, Universidad Michoacana, Mexico; Pablo Grijalba, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina; Karen Rane, University of Maryland; Hemilse Palmucci, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Barbara Shew, Mike Munster, and Ella Reeves, North Carolina State University.

Special thanks to the executives of USDA APHIS PPQ: Osama El-Lissy, Deputy Administrator, Plant Protection and Quarantine; Ron Sequeira, Associate Deputy Administrator, Science and Technology; Wendy Jin, Executive Director, Science and Technology; Phil Berger, (former) Executive Director, Science and Technology; Mark Nakhla, Director, Beltsville Lab; and Rick Zink, Director, Fort Collins Lab, for the encouragement and support for the many years of work that have gone into the implementationn of this valuable online resource.

Gloria Abad presents additional special acknowledgements to Vessela Mavrodieva, Beltsville Lab Assistant Director, and Kurt Zeller, Beltsville Lab Mycology Section Supervisor, for the encouragement and stimulus for IDphy work during 2018-2019.

In progress

Dr. Abad is continuing to collect and add photographs for the fact sheets. The authors of IDphy would like to request photographic material for morphology and disease symptoms for species that are missing documentation. Proper acknowledgement will be presented in each photo and in this section. Please contact Gloria Abad if you are interested in contributing images.