Figure 4. Leaf truncation in Cocos nucifera caused by periodic temporary B deficiency. This pattern was the result of heavy rainfall events approximately every 10 days during the development of the leaf in the center. Photo by T.K. Broschat
Figure 12. Crumpled ("accordion-leaf") young leaves of Phoenix dactylifera caused by a chronic and severe B deficiency. Note that the youngest leaf is emerging normally, indicating that this palm is recovering. Photo by T.K. Broschat
Figure 1. The spear leaf of this seedling palm has already died due to a bud rot pathogen. While the surrounding leaves appear healthy, the bud (apical meristem) of this palm has already rotted, and no new growth will occur. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 6. The Cocos nucifera on the left side of this photograph had the spear leaf and surrounding youngest leaves die from a bud rot pathogen months prior to this photograph. These leaves have fallen out of the palm canopy. No new leaves have emerged because the bud (apical meristem) has also died. The Cocos nucifera on the right is a healthy palm. Photo by M. L. Elliott
Figure 5. Washingtonia robusta leaf with one-sided discoloration and death of leaf segments due to Fusarium wilt. Note the brown stripe on the petiole is on the same side as the necrotic leaf segments. Photo courtesy of University of Florida/IFAS.
Figure 2. The Phoenix canariensis on the left is exhibiting premature death of the oldest leaves due to Ganoderma butt rot. This is in contrast to the healthy palm on the right. Photo by B. Dick, City of Lakeland, Florida.
Figure 3. The white mass in the upper-left corner is an early stage of basidiocarp formation of Ganoderma zonatum. The lower-right corner illustrates the shelf or bracket structure of a developing basidiocarp. Because it is still white at the edges and underneath, it has not yet matured and has not released the basidiospores. The lower-left corner illustrates an old, decaying basidiocarp. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 5. A series of cross-sections of a Ganoderma butt rot affected palm trunk. The section in the upper-left corner is the lowest section (at the soil line). The section in the lower-right corner is the furthest section from the soil line. The remaining sections are in the correct sequence from the soil line upwards. Note how the discoloration due to degrading tissue remains centralized within the trunk, but decreases as the cross-section ascends from the soil line. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 7. The section of Phoenix roebelenii on the left is the end of the trunk at the soil line and illustrates the typical trunk discoloration associated with Ganoderma butt rot. The section on the right was located further up the trunk and illustrates a trunk section unaffected by Ganoderma zonatum. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 2. Palm leaflets with numerous sori and emerging spores. Note that this leaf does not have potassium deficiency. There are no leaf spot symptoms, only the sori of the fungus. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 1. Sori of Graphiola phoenicis have erupted through the leaf epidermis. Some of the sori have filaments emerging from them. The mostly brown spots are not a symptom of Graphiola leaf spot, but a symptom of potassium deficiency. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 5. A leaf affected by both Graphiola leaf spot and Stigmina leaf spot. Signs of Graphiola phoenicis are the small back bodies (sori), many with filaments emerging from the sori. Stigmina palmivora symptoms are the large brown spots with dark edges and darker but flat centers. In some cases, a G. phoenicis sorus is superimposed upon the S. palmivora leaf spot. Photo by M. L. Elliott.
Figure 2. Elaeis guineensis affected by Marchitez Sorpresiva/sudden wilt/lethal wilt in late stages of disease surrounded by healthy palms. Dead leaves have formed skirt around trunk. Photo by M. L. Elliott.