Coraliomela

Introduction

Coraliomela Jacobson (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) contains four species from South America (Staines 2012). These are large insects ranging from 20 to 32 mm in length. Three species have been associated with palms; the fourth species has not been associated with any plant. Coraliomela brunnea is an important pest of coconut palm in Brazil.

Distribution

Coraliomela aeneoplagiata (Lucas) is found in Brazil (Goiás, São Paulo).

Coraliomela brunnea (Thunberg) is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil (Bahia, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Matto Grosso, Pará, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio de Janeiro, Rondónia, São Paulo, Sergipe), and Paraguay.

Coraliomela quadrimaculata (Guérin-Méneville) is found in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay

Hosts

Coraliomela aeneoplagiata feeds on various palms (Fischer 1935); Euterpe edulis Mart., E. oleracea Mart. (Zorzenon et al. 1999) (Arecaceae).

Coraliomela brunnea feeds on Cocos nucifera L., Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman, S. schizophylla (Mart.) Glassman, S. coronata Becc. (Bondar 1922, 1931); S. vagans (Bondar) A. D. Hawkes, Allagoptera arenaria Kuntze, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Andrade 1926); Cocos coronata Mart., C. schizophylla Mart., C. vagans Bond., Diplothemium maritimum Mart., and D. caudescens Mart. (Bondar 1940); Copernicia cerifera Martius (Gonçalves 1946); Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. (Schlottfeldt 1944); Elaeis guineensis (Sefer 1961); Euterpe edulis Mart., E. oleracea Mart. (Zorzenon et al. 1999) (Arecaceae).

Coraliomela quadrimaculata feeds on Cocos ramanzoffiana Cham. (Bondar 1940); C. eriospatha Mart. (Biezanko et al. 1949); Phoenix sp. (Bruch 1937); Attalea concentrista Bondar, Cocos coronata Becc., Euterpe edulis Mart., Phoenix dactylifera L. (Vieira 1952); and Cocos nucifera L. (Lepesme 1947) (Arecaceae).

Damage

Larval feeding by C. brunnea results in holes in the fronds which are visible when the spear unfolds. Heavy infestations can destroy the youngest fronds and thus retard their growth. The larvae seem to prefer younger plants and no serious new damage has been observed on older plants (Bondar 1931, 1940a, b; Ferreira & Morin 1984; Ferreira et al. 1998).

Adults feed on palm fronds eating the parenchyma between the leaf veins. Feeding channels are 5 to 20 cm in length and 1-1.5 mm in width. Heavily damaged fronds will split in the wind (Bondar 1931, 1940a, b; Ferreira & Morin 1984; Ferreira et al. 1998).

Life history notes

Females of C. brunnea lay single eggs in the upper or lower surface of younger foliage and eggs hatch in 19-29 days. Females lay about one egg per week. The yellowish-cream colored larvae move to the spear and feed on the tender unopened fronds. They migrate to unopened leaves as the previous one unfolds. The larval stage lasts about 180 days. Mature larvae are about 30 mm long and attach themselves with a secretion to petioles of older fronds and pupate. Pupae hang head down for an 11 day prepupal period and 20 days as pupae. The total length of a generation is 322 days. Development is completed on an individual plant (Bondar 1931, 1940a, b; Ferreira & Morin 1984; Ferreira et al. 1998).

Bibliography

Andrade, E. N. 1926. Contribuição para o estudo da entomologia florestal paulista. Boletim de Agricultura São Paulo 1926: 66-72.

Biezanko, C. M., R. E. Bertholdi, & O. Baucke. 1949. Relação dos principais insétos prejudiciais observados nos arredores de pelotas nas plantas cultivadas e selvagens. Agros 2: 156-213.

Bondar, G. 1922. Insectos damninhos e molestias do coqueiro (Cocos nucifera) no Brasil. Bahia, Imprensa Official do Estado. 111 pp.

Bondar, G. 1931. Notas biologicas sobre algnus Hispineos brasileiros. Correio Agricola Bahia 9: 134-137.

Bondar, G. 1940a. Insectos nocivos e molestias do coqueiro (Cocos nucifera) no Brasil. Boletim do Instituto Central de Fomento Economico de Bahia 8, 160 pp.

Bondar, G. 1940b. Pragas do coqueiro da família dos Chrysomelideos (comedores de fôlhas). Chacaras e Quintaes 62 (5): 611-614.

Bruch, C. 1937. Metamorfosis y etología de los híspidos (Col. Hisp.). Revista del Museo La Plata (Zoologia) (n.s.) 1: 31-34.

Ferreira, J. M. S. & J. P. Morin. 1984. Biologia e comportamento da barata do coqueiro, Coraliomela brunnea Thunb. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Resumos IX Congress o Brasiliero de Entomologia, Londrina, Paraná, 22-27 July 1984. p.23.

Ferreira, J. M. S., D. R. N. Warwick, & L. A. Siqueira. 1998. A cultura do coqueiro no Brasil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. Brasília. 2nd edition. 292 pp.

Fischer, C. R. 1935. Os coleopteros phytophagos da tribu Alurnini, pragas das palmeiras (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae). Revista de Entomologica Rio de Janiero 5: 257-292.

Gonçalves, C. R. 1946. Males da carnauba no Ceará e no Piaui. Boletim Fitossanitario 3(3-4): 145-170.

Lepesme, P. 1947. Les insectes des palmiers. Lechevailer, Paris. 903 pp.

Schlottfeldt, C. S. 1944. Insetos encontrados em plantas cultivadas e communs- Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Revista Ceres 6 (32): 108-127.

Sefer, E. 1961. Catalogo dos insetos que atacam as plantas cultivadas da Amazonia. Boletim Técnico Instituto Agrônomico do Norte 43: 23-53.

Staines, C. L. 2012. Tribe Alurnini. Catalog of the hispines of the world (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae). http://entomology.si.edu/Collections_Coleoptera.html

Vieira, A. 1952. Mecistomela corallina versus Phoenix dactylifera. Boletim de Secretaria de Agricultura, Industria e Comercio (Bahia) 49 (12): 26-30.

Zorzenon, F. J., E. C. Bermann, & J. E. A. Bicudo. 1999. Ocorrência de espécies e variedades do gênero Coraliomela Jacobson (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) em cultura de palmiteriros Euterpe edulis Mart. et Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Palmae) no Brasil. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico (São Paulo) 66 (1): 143-146.

Last updated November 2016

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