Copyright, citation, and disclaimers

Copyright notice

Unless otherwise indicated, content in Hispine Pests of Palms was created and/or authored under an interagency agreement the Smithsonian Institute and the USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP). This content may be freely distributed or copied in the public domain for non-commercial purposes. However, it is requested that in any subsequent use of this work, the author, the Smithsonian, and USDA APHIS ITP be given appropriate acknowledgement.

Suggested citation

Staines, C.L. 2016. Hispine Pests of Palms. In A Resource for Pests and Diseases of Cultivated Palms. Smithsonian Institute and USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program; Fort Collins, CO. [date you accessed site] <>

Image citation

(Unless otherwise noted)

Photo by C.L. Staines

To request permission to use one of the images from this tool, please visit the Hispine Pests of Palms project page at the ITP Bugwood Node.



While the authors have made every effort to provide accurate information in Hispine Pests of Palms, the author, the Smithsonian, and USDA APHIS ITP specifically disclaim all legal liability with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information contained in Hispine Pests of Palms. The author and associated institutions shall assume no legal liability for any damages, including direct, indirect, consequential, compensatory, special, punitive, or incidental damages arising from or relating to the use of Hispine Pests of Palms or the information and materials provided by or linked from Hispine Pests of Palms.

External links

Some web pages in Hispine Pests of Palms provide links to other websites for the convenience of users. The author, the Smithsonian, and USDA APHIS ITP are not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites, nor do the author, the Smithsonian, or USDA APHIS ITP endorse or warrant the products, services, or information described or offered by these websites.

Last updated November 2016