Glossary of Terms

a

Aestivation (to aestivate): Being in a state of arrest (often temporary and can be broken at anytime).

Anal pore: Small opening located in the mantle; may be located anteriorly or posteriorly and is responsible for waste removal by the animal.

Annulated: Consisting of rings.

Anterior: Directional term: located in front. Nearer the head or front end of a shell.

Anterior-laterally: This is a directional term meaning towards the front, on the side.

Apertural lip: The margin of the aperture, which may be sharp or thickened depending upon the species (Also see lip).

Aperture: The major opening of a shell that the body of the animal may be retracted.

Apex: The tip of the spire of a shell.

Aphallic: The state of lacking a penis.

Apical: Top side of the shell; opposite of base.

Apical whorls: The whorls near the apex of the shell.

Arboreal: Of or relating to trees OR Tree-dwelling or frequenting trees.

Asymmetrical: Not even on both sides of a usually central axis.

Atrium: Opening or passage of the genitalia. OR Region for the reception of gametes.

Axial: Directional term: This refers to a vertical direction often parallel to the columella; opposite of spiral.

b

Band: In slugs: Any transverse line (runs from side to side, or vertically e.g., on the foot fringe). In snails: A section of a shell that is differentiated by color or texture from either side of it.

Banding: Color markings in continuous stripes.

Base: This is the lower or underside of the shell; opposite of apical.

Beehive-shaped: Shell shape: having a shape that resembles a beehive.

Body whorl: The large, final coil (most recently formed) of a mollusc shell that contains the body of the snail, i.e. from the aperture to approximately one whorl back.

Breathing pore: This is the breathing hole on the right side of the mantle of molluscs. This allows air to pass through to the mantle for gas exchange. (See also pneumostome).

c

Calcareous: Consisting of limestone or calcium carbonate.

Callus: A area of the shell that is thickened.

Carinate: Posses or have a keel.

Character: 1). A distinctive trait, quality or attribute used for recognizing, describing, or differentiating taxa; 2). The term used to denote such descriptive traits that possess states and are located within the Lucid version 2 (and later) interactive matrix panel. (compare feature)

Character state: See also state

Columella: The central axis of the shell; originates at the shell apex and ends at the umbilicus.

Conical: Shell shape: shells with an elongated spire that tapers to a point and are slightly broader at the base.

Conspecific: Of or belonging to the same species or species-group.

d

Decollate: This term is used to describe shells without an apex.

Dentate: Possessing teeth or denticles (often refers to the aperture).

Denticle: Tooth-like structure on or in the opening of a shell (not to be confused with the radulate teeth inside the mouth of the animal). (See also teeth).

Denticle (Parietal denticle): Tooth-like structure on or in the opening of a shell (not to be confused with the radulate teeth inside the mouth of the animal). (Also see teeth, denticle).

Depressed: Shrunken below a certain level.

Depressed heliciform: Shell shape: shell that is wider than high.

Detritus: Disintegrated organic material e.g. decaying leaves.

Dextral: Having the opening of the shell on the right side when oriented so that the apex is upwards and the aperture is facing you.

Diapause: Being in a state of arrest (often predetermined and lasts for a specific period of time).

Diecious: Being sexually distinct. Male and female genitalia do not occur in the same specimen.

Discoid or Discoidal: Shell shape: disc-shaped, shell that is wider than high and depressed.

Distal: The farthest part from an object or the body of the animal.

e

Entities: See also entity

Entity: In Lucid, entities are the items the key aims to identify. Lucid uses the term entity to encompass items of all types.

Epiphragm: Temporary mucus secretion deposited in the aperture of the shell during periods of inactivity (e.g., aestivation). (See also operculum).

Euphallic: The state of possessing both fully developed male and female reproductive organs.

Evaginate: To turn inside out.

Eversion (to evert): The act or condition of being turned inside out.

f

Fact sheet: 1). A presentation of data in an HTML format on any subject emphasizing brevity, key points of interest or concern, and a way to convey the most relevant information in the least amount of space; 2). An HTML page itemizing the facts or pertinent information about each of a tool's entities.

Feature: 1). A distinctive trait, quality or attribute used for recognizing, describing, or differentiating taxa; 2). The term used to denote such descriptive traits that possess states and are located within the Lucid version 3 interactive matrix panel. (compare character)

Foot: The muscular organ on the undersurface of the body of a mollusc upon which the animal rests or uses to crawl.

Furrow (s): Having pits, grooves or trenches.

g

Gastropod: A single-shelled mollusc.

Genital opening (genital pore): Orifice that serves as the entrance to the reproductive system OR the opening that allows for the eversion of the penis.

Genitalia: The reproductive structures of an animal. May refer to either male or female structure.

Globose: Shell shape: to be roughly spherical or globular in shape.

Granular: Bearing granules on the surface or having a rough appearance.

Groove: An elongate and fairly uniform depression or indentation in the shell or soft parts of a mollusc.

Growth line (s): Deeply or markedly formed transverse lines on the shell-surface due to growth-stages and rest-periods.

h

Head: The area of a mollusc's body that has the tentacles, eyes and mouth.

Height: The height of the shell is a measure of the distance between the apex and the most basal part of the shell OR the measurement taken from the apex of the shell to the base, when measured parallel to the axis of the shell.

Helical: Spirally coiled.

Hemiphallic: State of having a reduced (not of typical size and structure) penis.

Hermaphrodite: Having both male and female reproductive organs. (See also Hermaphroditic)

Hermaphroditic: State of having both male and female reproductive organs. (See also Hermaphrodite)

Hirsute: Shells with a hairy surface.

Hyponotum: The ventral surface of the mantle. This structure can be found on either sides of the foot.

i

Impressed: Term used to describe the sutures of the shell when they are recessed OR may describe the sculpturing of the shell when there are depressions or pits.

Invaginate: To fold or turn inward

k

Keel: Also known as the carina. This is a longitudinal ridge that runs dorsally along the apex of the tail of the animal.

Keel (shell of animal): This is a ridge that runs along the periphery of the body whorl.

Keel (tail of animal): Also known as the carina. This is a longitudinal ridge that runs dorsally along the apex of the tail of the animal.

l

Lip: The margin of the aperture, which may be sharp or thickened depending upon the species (Also see apertural lip).

Lirae: Raised, spiral lines on the surface of the shell.

m

Malacologist: One who studies molluscs.

Malacology: The study of molluscs.

Mantle: A fleshy, membranous covering of the anterior portion of the body of a mollusc. It secretes the materials that form the shell.

Mantle cavity: The gap or space between the mantle and the visceral mass.

Median: Along the central line or axis.

Microsculpture: Any textural feature of the shell, especially those that can be seen with the aid of a microscope.

Mollusc: Common name for animals in the phylum Mollusca. These are invertebrate animals, which have soft unsegmented bodies and may or may not possess a shell. This group includes gastropods (slugs and snails), cephalopods (octopus) and bivalves (clams, oysters).

n

Necrotic: Dead or dying tissue. Often brown to black in color.

Nocturnal: Occurring or becoming active at night.

o

Olfactory: Of or relating to the sense of smell.

Opaque: Not having the ability to see through an object. (Not transparent or translucent)

Operculum: A rigid structure that blocks the opening/aperture of the shell (partially/wholly) when the body of the snail is retracted. This structure is often attached dorsal to the tail of the animal. It can be chitinous, proteinaceous or calcareous. Often observed in aquatic species. (See also epiphragm).

Oviposit (Oviposition): The act of egg laying.

Oviviparous: Ability to give birth to live young, where the parent produces eggs that hatch internally. (See also viviparous)

Ovoviviparous: Reproductive strategy: prior to deposition, eggs are retained inside the animal until they are fully developed.

p

Periostracum: This is a thin membrane that coats the shell, often comprised of chitin or proteinaceous substances. This material may be smooth, or covered in hair or 'scale-like' projections.

Peristome: Margin of the aperture of a snail's shell. This region may be thickened in mature animals.

Pneumostome: This is the breathing hole on the right side of the mantle of molluscs. This allows air to pass through to the lung for gas exchange.(See also breathing pore).

Posterior: Directional term: the rear or tail end of an animal.

r

Radula: A rasp-like or ribbon-shaped structure that bears rows of teeth used in feeding.

Recurved: To curve back at the tip of the shell's lip. (See also reflected)

Reticulate: A network pattern of lines or grooves.

Ribs: Raised, transverse ridges on the surface of the shell.

s

Self-fertilization: This is an event where an organism is produced by the fertilization of an egg by sperm from the same organism. (See also hermaphrodite)

Semi-slug: A snail that possess a very reduced (no definite coiling) or small shell, that is often located on the posterior edge of the mantle. The animal is not able to retract into this minute shell.

Sexually dimorphic (Sexual dimorphism): This term is used to refer to any species where there is a physical difference between males and females of that same species (e.g., in peacocks, only males have the distinctly colorful feathers on the tail).

Shell: A hard, inflexible, calcareous or chitinous structure that vary in size and may either completely encasing the animal, covering some part of it or be internal.

Sinistral: Having the opening of the shell on the left side when the observer hold the shell so that the apex is upwards and the aperture faces them.

Siphon: In aquatic and semi-terrestrial gastropods, this is a narrow breathing tube formed by an extension of the mantle.

Slug: A snail that either does not possess a shell or has one that is very reduced (no definite coiling) or internal.

Spermatophore: This is a capsule or sac of male gametes and nutrients, which is produced by the male organ of the snail. This capsule is often transferred as a whole, to the female reproductive organ during mating.

Spiral: Directional term: direction of the coils of the whorls of a shell; opposite of axial.

Spire: All the coils (whorls) of a shell above the body whorl.

State: The basic component or distinct phase of a Lucid feature or character that can be observed, measured, or otherwise assessed.

Striae: Any linear indentation on the surface of the shell. They can be either spiral (stripes) or axial (bands) in direction.

Striations: Having a series of stripes, grooves or lines.

Stripe (s): 1). In slugs: Any longitudinal line that runs from the head of the animal to the tail. 2). In snails: Any spiral line that follows the whorls.

Succiniform: Shell shape: shell that is higher than wide with a very large aperture (mouth). The spire is generally brief and the body whorl very expanded.

Suture: The junction/seam between the whorls of a mollusc's shell.

t

Tentacles: Sensory projections on the head end of a mollusc. There are generally two pairs; upper (posterior) and smaller, lower (anterior). The upper pair bears the eyes. In many snails the eyes are located at the tips of this structure; however, in Basommatophoran snail species, the eyes are located at the base of the tentacles.

Tooth (teeth): Tooth-like structure in the opening of the shell (not to be confused with the radulate teeth in the mouth of the animal). (See also denticle).

Translucent: Allows light to pass through but prevents the ability to see distinct objects.

Tripartite: Having three distinct section/regions.

Tubercle: An enlarged or raised region on the body of a slug. The shape of this structure is very variable.

Tubercles: An enlarged or raised region on the body of a slug. The shape of this structure is very variable. (See also tubercle)

u

Umbilicus: A navel-like indentation or depression in the center of the shell. It may be described as open (inside of columella visible), partially closed (partly covered by base of aperture) or completely closed (not visible). The width of the umbilicus is a measure of its greatest diameter.

v

Visceral mass: The region of the mollusc's body that contains the organs.

Viviparous: Ability to give birth to live young (no eggs produced), where the embryo develops inside the parent. (See also oviviparous)

w

Whorl: A complete spiral turn/growth of the shell of a mollusc. The whorls are counted from the apex outwards.

Whorls: Pleural of whorl. A whorl is a complete spiral turn/growth of the shell of a mollusc. The whorls are counted from the apex outwards.

Width: The width of the shell is the maximum distance across the shell (including the aperture).