Succineidae

Family

Succineidae

Species

Succinea campestris Say, 1818

S. costaricana von Martens, 1898

S. horticola Reinhardt, 1877

S. putris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Indosuccinea tenella (Morelet, 1865)

Calcisuccinea luteola Gould, 1848

C. dominicensis (Pfeiffer)

Oxyloma elegans (Risso, 1826)

Common Name

Ambersnails

Succinea campestris: Crinkled ambersnail

S. costaricana: None reported.

S. horticola: None reported.

S. putris: Large ambersnail

Indosuccinea tenella: None reported

Calcisuccinea luteola: Mexico ambersnail

C. dominicensis: Dominican ambersnail

Oxyloma elegans: Pfeiffer's ambersnail

Description

Ambersnails are very difficult to distinguish. Morphological and molecular techniques are usually required to separate the different species. A common species in this group is Succinea campestris. The shell of this snail has a dull appearance due to the faint, irregular microscopic granulation present on the exterior surface. The height of the shell ranges from 9.4 -17 mm and the width 6.8-11.5 mm totaling 3 1/3-3 1/2 whorls. The shell is very compact at the top as a result of a very short spire. The overall shape of the shell is oval and the base of the shell is wide as a result of the very large aperture (mouth). The whitish shell has gray streaks. In some cases the shell may be gray in color with light yellow streaks or tint. The wrinkles on the shell are low and wide. The sutures on the shell are deeply prominent. The interior surface of the shell cream colored or white.

Calcisuccinea luteola: Shell succiniform, averaging a height of 12.5 mm and a width of 6 mm, with 4 whorls. The shell of juveniles may be yellow-green to tan in color. In adults it is gray to white, with the inside of the shell sometimes having a yellow color. Aperture (mouth) ovate.

C. dominicensis: The succiniform shell of this species can attain a height of 10 mm and a width of 7 mm, with 3.25 whorls. The shell is generally tan to pale brown in color, smooth and glossy. This species has a thicker shell than other species.

Oxyloma elegans: The shell of this species may be 9-12 mm high, occasionally 18 mm, with 3 whorls. The color of the shell varies from light brown to black. The pale morphs generally have a dark-colored markings on the shell.

Native Range

S. campestris: North America

S. putris: Europe and Siberia

O. elegans: Holarctic

Distribution

Succinea spp.:

North America:

  • U.S.
  • Canada

Pacific Islands: Hawaii

Europe

Calcisuccinea luteola:

North America:

  • U.S.: from Louisiana west to Arizona

South and Central America

Caribbean: Haiti, Dominican Republic

C. dominicensis:

Caribbean: Haiti

Oxyloma elegans:

Europe: Britain, Ireland

Ecology

In general, Succinea spp. and Indosuccinea spp. consume algae and moss, and occasionally higher plants. Succinea costricana colonize leaf litter and other moist microhabitats. Additionally this species is attracted to lights, which is highly unusual for snails. This species has been noted as a quarantine pest of ornamentals (Dracaena species) because of its propensity to remain attached to leaves. It can reproduce by self-fertilization and lays few eggs; however, it lays year round.

Calcisuccinea spp. are considered significant pests of fruit and horticultural crops. They have been detected in greenhouse and nursery production of fruit and ornamental crops, on the other hand Indosuccinea spp. are typically found in wetlands (e.g., marshes). These species are prolific and can rapidly achieve pest status.

Synonyms

Succinea campestris:

  • Succinea campestris Say 1817, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1:281 (Sea Islands of Georgia and Cumberland Island; Amelia Island, N.E. Florida; Binney, 1851, Terr. Moll., 2: 67, pl. 67b, fig. 1.
  • Succinea inflata Linnaeus 1844, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 9: 5; Obs. Genus Unio, 4: 5 (South Carolina)

S. putris:

  • Helix putris Linnaeus, 1758
  • Succinea amphibia Draparnaud, 1801

Calcisuccinea luteola:

  • Succinea (Calcisuccinea) luteola luteola Gould, 1848
  • Succinea luteola Gould, 1848
  • Succinea texasiana Pfeiffer, 1848
  • Succinea citrina Shuttleworth

References

Anderson 2005; Cowie et al. 2008; Cowie et al. 2009; Kantor et al. 2009; Villalobos et al. 1995; Perez and Cordeiro 2008; Pilsbry 1948

Posted on