parasitic; feeds on hemolymph of developing honey bees (inside capped brood cells)
Female: Gnathosoma with 3 pairs of hypostomal setae (similar to those of Varroa). Idiosoma not transversely oval in outline (Figs. 1, 2), hypertrichous (Figs. 1, 2). Exopodal IV and metapodal shields not enlarged, not covering entire ventral opisthosoma (Fig. 2). Epigynal and metapodal shields almost touching (Fig. 2). Anal opening terminal, not visible ventrally (Fig. 2).
Similar to Varroa. Differences (character states of Varroa are shown in parentheses): idiosoma not transversely oval (transversely oval); exopodal IV and metapodal shields not enlarged, not covering entire ventral opisthosoma (enlarged and, together with epigynal shield, cover almost entire ventral opisthosoma); anal shield terminal, not visible ventrally (ventral, visible ventrally).
Asia from Iran through India to Sri Lanka; Thailand and Malaysia
honey bees (Apis)
associated exclusively with bees or their close relative, wasps; cannot live without these hosts
some life stages are associated with bees, while others are not
can complete entire life cycle without bees or their close relative, wasps
The biology of the two species in this genus is summarized after Sammataro et al., 2000. Euvarroa sinhai is a parasite of Apis florea, occurring in Asia from Iran through India to Sri Lanka. The mite develops naturally on the capped drone brood but has been reared in the laboratory on A. mellifera worker brood. Development requires less than one week, and each female produces four to five offspring. Drones as well as workers are used for dispersal. The female mite overwinters in the colony, probably feeding on the clustering bees. Colony infestation by E. sinhai is somewhat hindered by the construction of queen cells, and its population growth is inhibited in the presence of Tropilaelaps clareae and Varroa destructor. Transfer experiments confirmed that E. sinhai may survive on A. mellifera and A. cerana, emphasizing its ability to cross-infest exotic hosts.
Euvarroa wongsirii parasitizes drone brood of Apis andreniformis in Thailand and Malaysia. Its biology appears similar to E. sinhai, and it can live for at least 50 days on worker bees outside the nest.