Euvarroa

 

HARMFUL | NOT HARMFUL | UNCERTAIN

parasitic; feeds on hemolymph of developing honey bees (inside capped brood cells)

Name and classification

Euvarroa Delfinado and Baker, 1974

Taxonomy
Superorder Parasitiformes » Order Mesostigmata » Suborder Monogynaspida » Hyporder Dermanyssiae » Family Laelapidae » Genus Euvarroa

Type species
Euvarroa sinhai Delfinado and Baker, 1974

Distribution

Asia from Iran through India to Sri Lanka; Thailand and Malaysia

Bee hosts

honey bees (Apis)

Host association level

Permanent

associated exclusively with bees or their close relative, wasps; cannot live without these hosts

Temporary

some life stages are associated with bees, while others are not

Facultative or opportunistic

can complete entire life cycle without bees or their close relative, wasps

permanent

Host associations, feeding, and dispersal

  • All stages live in beehives inside capped brood cells, where they parasitize developing bees by feeding on their hemolymph.
  • Mite females disperse on adult bees and feed during phoresy.

Biology

The biology of the two species in this genus is summarized after Sammataro et al., 2000. Euvarroa sinhai is a parasite of Apis florea, occurring in Asia from Iran through India to Sri Lanka. The mite develops naturally on the capped drone brood but has been reared in the laboratory on A. mellifera worker brood. Development requires less than one week, and each female produces four to five offspring. Drones as well as workers are used for dispersal. The female mite overwinters in the colony, probably feeding on the clustering bees. Colony infestation by E. sinhai is somewhat hindered by the construction of queen cells, and its population growth is inhibited in the presence of Tropilaelaps clareae and Varroa destructor. Transfer experiments confirmed that E. sinhai may survive on A. mellifera and A. cerana, emphasizing its ability to cross-infest exotic hosts.

Euvarroa wongsirii parasitizes drone brood of Apis andreniformis in Thailand and Malaysia. Its biology appears similar to E. sinhai, and it can live for at least 50 days on worker bees outside the nest.