Authors and acknowledgements



Pavel B. Klimov, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Barry OConnor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Ronald Ochoa, USDA ARS Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland

Gary Bauchan, USDA ARS Electron and Confocal Microscope Unit, Beltsville, Maryland

Amanda Redford, USDA APHIS ITP, Fort Collins, Colorado

Julia Scher, USDA APHIS ITP, Fort Collins, Colorado

For questions about content, please contact Pavel Klimov (
For questions about access or functionality of the website, contact Julia Scher (


We thank curators of the following museums and institutions who provided access to bee specimens and mite collections used in this study, as well as hospitality and help during our visits to their institutions: Drs Jerome G. Rozen and John S. Ascher (American Museum of Natural History, New York); Terry Griswold (USDA Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan, Utah); Brian V. Brown (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County); James Liebherr (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York); the late Charles Michener and the late Byron Alexander (University of Kansas, Lawrence); Cheryl Barr (University of California, Berkeley); Frederick Stehr and the late Roland Fischer (Michigan State University, East Lansing); Wojciech Pulawski (California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco); Colin Favret (Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois), Prof. Fernando Amaral da Silveira and José Eustáquio dos Santos Júnior (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brasil); and Sergey Mironov (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg).

We thank Dr. John Ascher for verifying names of bee hosts, identifying some critical host taxa, and creating an excellent resource on bee systematics at

For fieldwork assistance thanks to: Prof. Almir Rogério Pepato, Prof. Fernando Amaral da Silveira, and José Eustáquio dos Santos Júnior (UFMG, Brasil); Prof. Gilberto José de Moraes, Marcela Massaro, and Renan Venancio (Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, Brasil); Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Fallas and Dra Ingrid Aguilar (Centro de Investigaciones Apicolas Tropicales, Heredia, Costa Rica); Pamela Murillo, Dr. Hugo Aguilar, and Dr. Humberto Lezama (Insect Museum, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica); Dra Tila M. Pérez (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México); Drs. Juan B. Morales-Malacara (Laboratorio de Acarología Departamento de Biología Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México); Cal Welbourn (FDACS, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida); and Carl Childers (Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida).

The authors are deeply grateful for help and assistance from the following:

Maribel Beltrán, Jane Dykema, Jill Diesel and Randa Tao (University of Michigan) helped with specimen mounting and labeling and image processing.

Lindsey Seastone (USDA APHIS ITP) thoroughly proofed and analyzed the tool's glossary for clarity and captured high-quality photographs of mites on bees.

Laura Hartmann (USDA APHIS Fort Collins Lab) completed complex processing of the photographs depicting mites on bees.

Mark O'Brien supported photography of bee specimens at the University of Michigan.

Anthony Walter (USDA APHIS ITP) provided extensive support in coding and fixes for the tool's website.

We thank the beta testers for their helpful comments and suggestions: John Ascher, Samuel Bolton, Peter Kerr, Qixin He, Heather Proctor, and David Walter.

Image credits

Home page images:

  • Mason bee bearing mites; photo © Matt Cole
  • Bee Xylocopa tabaniformis orpifex bearing Sennertia vaga mites; photo © Linda Dahlberg / Discover Life
  • Bumble bee bearing Parasitellus mites; photo © Melissa A. Barton
  • Bumble bee bearing Parasitellus mites; photo © Alan Smith
  • Honey bee bearing Varroa destructor mites; photo © Jon Gascoyne, Flickr

Header banner and home page background image of honey bees (darkened): photo © Jürgen Mangelsdorf