Microlepidoptera on Solanaceae

Lineodes integra

Name

Lineodes integra (Zeller, 1873)

Common name: Nightshade leaf tier, Eggplant leafroller

Original combination: Scoptonoma integra Zeller, 1873

Synonyms: none.

Alternative combinations: none.

Classification: Pyraloidea, Crambidae, Spilomelinae, Leucinodes group

Adult recognition

Forewing length: 6.8 - 11.5 mm, narrow (largest specimens from California). The white longitudinal arc on the forewings is evenly rounded and does not reach the costa. In the male genitalia, the most prominent feature is a triangular spine directed upward from the sacculus. The longitudinal fibula is only weakly developed as a ridge, prominent only at the base near the triangular spine. The female genitalia are not distinguishable from several other Lineodes species, having a narrow ductus bursae that is twice as long as the globular corpus bursae.

Immature stages

Among the species treated here, larvae of L. integra uniquely have a pair of black spots on the sides of the prothoracic shield: these are darker and more sharply defined than the brown, irregular spots in some of the other species. Also unique is the position of SD2 posteroventral of SD1 on the mesothorax. The pinacula are not pigmented. The A1 SV group is bisetose.

Similar species

Lineodes interrupta (Zeller) is a closely related species occurring mainly from Texas to Kansas and Missouri, although it is recorded as a stray as far as Florida. Despite its broad distribution, host records are practically unknown. The white arc on the forewing approaches the costa in a triangle, interrupting the brown shading of the costa. The male sacculus is inwardly extended as a low, round knob rather than a triangular spine. The female genitalia are identical. Lineodes ochrea Walsingham is endemic to Hawaii, where it feeds on eggplant. The wing pattern is paler brown, contrasting with dark brown AM and PM areas. The genitalia are like those of L. integra, with the saccular spine blunter. The larvae of few Lineodes species have been described. Lineodes fontella and L. hierglyphicalis are similar but lack the black spots on the prothoracic shield; however, conspicuous dark prothoracic spots are present in other spilomelines that feed on different hosts. The larva of L. triangulalis has pinacula with black-shaded margins.

Behavior

The larvae are active through the spring into fall. They web leaves and hide in withered foliage. Young larvae feed on the lower side of leaves, eventually skeletonizing them, then rolling leaves in later instars or consuming the leaves entirely. They occasionally also graze the surface of petioles and feed on fruits of all stages, from buds to ripe fruit. They feed on the fruit surface when in high densities, attacking sheltered areas, such as under the sepals or where the fruit contacts other parts of the plant. Larvae do not directly bore into fruit, but the greatest damage is caused by grazing the fruit surface.

Pupation occurs on the plant, usually inside a rolled leaf edge, but sometimes on the axil or in crevices of the stem. Pupation lasts 7 to 10 days.

Distribution

Broadly distributed through South and North America. In North America, it occurs throughout the United States, from Florida to California, and as far north as Illinois, Wisconsin, and Washington. In the southern US, it is recorded from AL, FL, LA, MS, TX. Also recorded in Argentina, Bahamas, Brazil, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua.

Hosts

Capsicum annuum L. (pepper)

Nicotiana glauca Graham (tree tobacco)

Solanum angustifidum Bitter (as “S. jasminifolium,” Dyar 1901)

S. asperum Rich (as “S. radula,” Dyar 1901)

S. carolinense L. (horsenettle)

S. incarceratum Ruiz and Pav.

S. lycopersicum L. (tomato)

S. melongena L. (eggplant)

S. torvum Sw. (turkey berry)

S. tuberosum L. (potato)

S. umbelliferum Eschsch. (bluewitch nightshade)

S. verbascifolium

S. viarum (Tropical soda apple)

S. xanti A. Gray (chaparral nightshade)

Solanum spp. (“nightshade”)

Comments

Dyar (1901) recorded larvae on “Solanum radula” and “S. jasminifolium” in southern Florida, indicating that the former was wild.

Literature

Allyson, 1984.

Campbell, 1938

Compton, 1937.

Dyar, 1901.

Keifer, 1937.

Passoa, 1985.

Zimmerman, 1958.