Glossary

 

A

abdomen : the hind region of the insect body consisting of nine apparent ringlike flexible segments in the grasshopper

accidentals : adult grasshoppers in locations where the species does not complete its life cycle

Acrididae : a family of insects that comprise the grasshoppers with short antennae, short ovipositor, and tarsi of legs three-segmented

aedeagus : the intromittent or insertion organ of the male genitalia

allotype : a paratype specimen of the opposite sex to the holotype used in making the original description of a species

anal area of tegmen : hind or posterior part of tegmen

annulus : a colored or light circular band

antenna : (pl., antennae) pair of segmented appendages (feelers) located on head and sensory in function

anterior : pertaining to the front of the body

apex : the terminal or distal part of a body structure

appetitive flight : local movement by flight concerned with finding food, mates, and egg laying sites

apterous : without wings

arcuate : arched or humped

arolium : a padlike structure at the end of the insect leg between the claws

Arthropoda : a group or phylum of animals that have segmented bodies, exoskeletons, and jointed legs

articulate : to connect by a joint

B

bandwinged grasshoppers : a subfamily of grasshoppers, the Oedipodinae, that usually have a submarginal dark band on the hindwings

basal : at or near base of a structure

bilobate : divided into two lobes

biotic potential : the inherent properties of an organism to survive, reproduce, and increase in numbers

blastokinesis : active movement of the grasshopper embryo by which it passes from the ventral to the dorsal side of the egg and at the same time revolves 180 degrees on its long axis

blowouts : a hollow of several acres formed by action of wind

brachypterous : with short wings

brood : all the individuals that hatch at about one time from eggs laid by one series of parents and that normally mature at about the same time; a group of individuals of a species that have hatched into young or have become adult at approximately the same time, and live together in a defined and limited area, and they may be of different generations

C

calcar : a spinelike process of the integument connected by a joint

carina : (pl., carinae) an external ridge of the integument.

carinula : (pl., carinulae) a little carina or ridge

center of distribution : the circumscribed area of habitats in which the species is almost always present and where dense populations regularly occur

cercus : (pl, cerci) an appendage of the tenth abdominal segment usually triangular and short in grasshoppers

chevrons : a pattern of V-shaped markings in one direction on the medial area of the grasshopper’s hind femur

chorionic sculpturing : a network pattern on the chorion (shell) of the insect egg

clavate : clubbed, having a thickened or expanded distal end

clypeus : the front liplike sclerite on which the labrum articulates

complete metamorphosis : metamorphosis through which the insect develops by four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult

compound eye : an eye made up of many individual eye elements each represented externally by a corneal facet

concave : hollowed out like the interior of a sphere segment

convex : like the outer curved surface of a sphere segment

costal : referring to the anterior portion of any wing

coxa : basal segment of insect leg articulating leg to body

cristate : having a prominent carina or crest

curate : to mount, label, store, and protect museum specimens

D

day-degrees : the degrees each day that the average daily temperature is above a threshold temperature for development. For each day that a process takes to complete, these degrees are totaled to yield the day degrees required for the process such as egg incubation or nymphal development.

diapause : a state of low metabolic activity mediated hormonally and associated with ceased growth, reduced activity, and increased resistance to environmental extremes

disk of pronotum : central upper surface of pronotum

disk of wings : central area of hindwings within the margins or within the submarginal band when present

distal : that part of an appendage farthest from the body

distribution : the location of all habitats in which the species lives and reproduces; the area in which the species has been recorded

distribution center : see center of distribution

dorsal : pertaining to the top surface of the body

E

eclosion : the hatching of the larva or nymph from its egg

egg pod : a case made of grasshopper gluelike secretions and soil particles enclosing a clutch of grasshopper eggs

emarginate : notched

ensiform : broad at base, narrowing to tip

epiproct : a triangular dorsal plate of the eleventh abdominal segment overlying the anus

F

family : a taxonomic category including one genus or a group of genera of common phylogenetic origin

fasciate : banded

fastigium : the front part of the top of the head in front of the compound eyes

femoral stripe : the dark stripe running along the dorsal medial area of the hind femur of a grasshopper

femur : (pl., femora) a segment of the insect leg; the stout segment of the grasshopper’s hindleg

ferruginous : resembling iron rust in color

filiform : threadlike, slender and of equal diameter

fledge : acquisition of the adult wings

forb : broadleafed herbaceous plant (e.g., dandelion)

foveola : (pl., foveolae) a small depression in the integument

frons : front of the head above the clypeus

frontal costa : broad vertical ridge on the front of the head

furcula : forked projection from posterior edge of tenth abdominal tergum and overlying supraanal plate

fuscous : color of dark brown approaching black

G

gena : the sclerite at the side of the head

gene : a unit of heredity on a chromosome in the cell nucleus

gene pool : the total genes of all the individuals of a species in a population

genitalia : the external reproductive structures

genus : a taxonomic category containing a group of related species

geographic range : the area bounded by the location of outlying populations of a species; the location of the smallest area within an imaginary boundary line that encloses all populations of a species

Gomphocerinae : a subfamily of grasshoppers known commonly as slantfaced grasshoppers

gradual metamorphosis : metamorphosis through which the insect develops by three distinct stages, namely egg, nymph, adult

griseous : light color mottled with black or brown

H

hindwings : the fanshaped membranous second pair of wings of grasshoppers

hirsute : hairy

holotype : the single specimen designated as the "type" by the author of the original description at time of publication

hyaline : transparent and glassy

I

imago : a name for the adult insect

immaculate : without spots or marks

incrassate : thickened or swollen usually near tip

Insecta : the insects; a class in the phylum Arthropoda in which adults have three body regions, head, thorax, and abdomen; three pairs of legs; and a respiratory system of air tubes or trachea

instar : the immature insect between two successive molts

invertebrate : animal without spinal column or backbone

K

keel : a sharp, enlarged ridge or carina

key : a tabular arrangement of species, genera, families, etc., according to characters that serve to identify them

knee : the enlarged end of the hind femur

M

macropterous : with well developed long wings

maculate : spotted

medial : situated in or closest to the middle

median area of tegmen : the middle part of tegmen

median carina : any ridge set medianly on an insect part, such as the pronotum or head of a grasshopper

Melanoplinae : a subfamily of grasshoppers commonly known as the spurthroated grasshoppers

mesosternal interspace : the area between the mesosternal lobes

mesosternal lobes : the paired separated posterior areas of the mesosternum

mesosternum : the ventral plate of the mesothorax between and in front of the middle pair of legs

mesothorax : the middle segment of the thorax

mesothorax : the middle segment of the thorax

metamorphosis : the change of body form through which insects pass in developing to the adult

metasternal interspace : the area between the metasternal lobes

metasternal lobes : the paired separated posterior areas of the metasternum

metathorax : the hind segment of the thorax

metazona : the posterior part of the pronotal disk, lies behind the principal sulcus

molt : process of shedding outer layers of the integument

O

occiput : top of head behind the compound eye

ocellus : (pl., ocelli) the single-faceted simple eye of an insect. A grasshopper has three ocelli, two lateral and one median

Oedipodinae : a subfamily of grasshoppers known commonly as bandwinged grasshoppers

Orthoptera : an order of insects with gradual metamorphosis, chewing mouthparts, and leathery forewings; includes grasshoppers and crickets

outer margin of wing : the margin between apex and anal angle of the grasshopper hindwing

ovipositor : in grasshoppers, the paired digging and egg laying structures at the end of the female abdomen

ovipositor valves : three pair of digging and egg laying structures at the end of the abdomen in female grasshoppers

P

pallium : the membrane stretching across the walls of the subgenital plate and covering the male genitalia

paratype : a specimen other than the holotype that was before the author at the time of preparation of the original description and was so designated by the author

pellucid : transparent whether clear or colored

pleuron : (pl., pleura) the side sclerites of the thorax

posterior : pertaining to the rear of the body

pottering : intermittent walking and wandering with frequent changes in direction

preapical : before the apex

preoviposition period : the period between molting to the adult and the laying of the first group of eggs; in grasshoppers the period normally lasts one to two weeks

principal sulcus : the hind sulcus cutting the median carina of the pronotum

pronotum : the saddle-shaped top of the first thoracic segment

prosternal spine : a protuberant process of the prosternum located between bases of front legs

prosternum : the lower or ventral surface of the prothorax

prothorax : the front segment of the thorax

proximal : that part of an appendage closest to the body

prozona : the anterior part of the pronotal disk, lies in front of the principal sulcus

pupa : (pl., pupae) the stage between the larva and the adult in insects with complete metamorphosis; a nonfeeding stage in which adult structures develop and grow

Q

quadrate : resembling a square or rectangular space

R

ruderal : growing along roadsides or in disturbed or abandoned farmland

ruga : (pl., rugae) a wrinkle

rugose : wrinkled

S

sclerite : a hardened body wall plate of insects delimited by sutures or membranous areas

seasonal cycle : the timing of the periods of egg hatch, nymphal development, adulthood, and reproduction

shoulder : the lateral angles of the metazona of the pronotum

slantfaced grasshoppers : a subfamily of grasshoppers, the Gomphocerinae

spatulate : round and broadened apically, spoon-shaped

species : a kind of organism; a genetically distinctive group of natural populations that share a common gene pool and are reproductively isolated from all other such groups

spine : a thornlike outgrowth of the integument not separated from it by a joint

spur : a spinelike process of the integument connected by a joint

spurthroated grasshoppers : a subfamily of grasshoppers, the Melanoplinae, that bear a conspicuous process (spine) on the prosternum

stadium : (pl., stadia) the time period between two successive molts of larvae or nymphs

sternite : a subdivision of a sternum

sternum : the ventral part or bottom of a thoracic or abdominal segment

stridulate : making a creaking or grating sound by insects through rubbing two rough surfaces against each other

stridulatory pegs : a row of small pegs on the inner surface of the hind femur of certain grasshoppers (most slantfaced species)

styliform : long and slender

sub- : Latin prefix meaning under; almost or somewhat

subarcuate : a little arched or bowed

subesophageal ganglion : three fused ganglia located in head below digestive tract innervating the mouthparts

subgenital plate : in the male grasshopper, the terminal ventral plate underlying the genitalia

submarginal band : the dark band usually present on the hindwings of species of bandwinged grasshoppers

sulcus : (pl., sulci) a groove or furrow in the integument

supraanal plate : a triangular dorsal plate of the eleventh abdominal segment overlying the anus

suture : a linelike groove in the integument

T

tarsus : the segmented foot of an insect; three-segmented in the grasshopper

tectate : roof-like, sloping from a peak

tegmen : (pl., tegmina) the leathery, narrow, nearly parallel sided forewings of grasshoppers and other Orthoptera

tergum : the dorsal and lateral surface of an abdominal segment

tessellate : Mosaic or checkered

testaceous : brownish yellow

thorax : the middle body region of an insect between the head and the abdomen

threshold : the temperature or level of hormone concentration that must be reached before development or growth can begin

tibia : (pl., tibiae) the long, slender segment of the insect leg

tracheal system : the respiratory system of insects that consists of internal airfilled tubes

trochanter : a small segment of the insect leg located between the coxa and the femur

truncate : cut off squarely at end

tympanum : the membrane covering of the auditory organ

type : the single specimen that bears the name of the species and from which the species was described

V

vagility : capacity to disperse

valves of ovipositor : three pair of digging and egg laying structures at the end of the abdomen in female grasshoppers

veins : the riblike tubes that strengthen the wings of insects

venation : the entire system of veins of an insect wing

ventral : pertaining to the undersurface of the body

vertex : top of head between the compound eyes