Paspalum scrobiculatum

Name and classification

Paspalum scrobiculatum L.
Family Poaceae, Tribe Paniceae

Common names

kodo-millet, Indian paspalum

Disseminule

spikelet; disarticulation below the glumes

Description

Spikelets solitary, not associated with a naked pedicel or rudimentary spikelets. Spikelets orbicular to broadly elliptic or obovate, dorsally compressed, plano-convex, 1.4–3.2 mm long, 1.5–2.3 mm wide, completely glabrous, consisting of 1 fertile floret and 1 basal sterile lemma. Lower glume absent; upper glume membranous or chartaceous, as long as spikelet, 5–7-nerved. Sterile lemma similar to upper glume, 3–5-nerved. Fertile lemma indurate, olive green to dark brown, glossy, striate, convex, as long as spikelet, 1.4–1.8 mm wide, with margins inrolled, covering palea margins; palea flat, indurate, glossy. Caryopsis 1.1–1.5 mm long, nearly orbicular, reddish-brown; embryo less than 1/2 the length of the caryopsis; hilum oval.

Distribution

tropical and southern Africa, the Indian subcontinent to China, Southeast Asia, and Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands; also Japan and Korea; Brazil, United States

Habitat

poor, thin soil, swampy ground; wet, open cultivated places, pastures, wasteland

General information

Paspalum scrobiculatum is a perennial tufted grass up to 100 cm tall. Propagation is by grain. The species is native to India where it is grown as a cereal called "Kodo".

spikelets and florets

spikelets and florets

spikelets in dorsal view showing upper glume (top) and ventral view showing sterile lemma (bottom)

spikelets in dorsal view showing upper glume (top) and ventral view showing sterile lemma (bottom)

dorsal view of florets showing lemma and remnants of the papery upper glume

dorsal view of florets showing lemma and remnants of the papery upper glume

ventral view of florets showing palea and margins of lemma, as well as remnants of the papery sterile lemma and upper glume

ventral view of florets showing palea and margins of lemma, as well as remnants of the papery sterile lemma and upper glume

caryopses in dorsal view (left) and ventral view (right); photo by Mark Thurmond

caryopses in dorsal view (left) and ventral view (right); photo by Mark Thurmond

A, spikelet in ventral view; B, spikelet in dorsal view; C, floret in ventral view; D, floret in dorsal view; E, caryopsis in ventral view; F, caryopsis in dorsal view; drawing by Lynda E. Chandler

A, spikelet in ventral view; B, spikelet in dorsal view; C, floret in ventral view; D, floret in dorsal view; E, caryopsis in ventral view; F, caryopsis in dorsal view; drawing by Lynda E. Chandler