Planococcus lilacinus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
oriental cacao mealybug, lilac mealybug
citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri
passionvine mealybug, Planococcus minor. Passionvine mealybug also has the common name of coffee mealybug but has not been reported as a pest of citrus.
United States: Not known to occur in the United States.
Worldwide: Africa and surrounding island nations, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America.
Native to southern Asia.
All citrus and their hybrids, but the following are specifically identified in scientific literature:
Broad host range, plants from over 35 families serve as hosts including:
Coffee mealybugs give birth to live young called "crawlers." Crawlers seek out leaves and shoots to feed upon until they mature. Immatures and adults pierce soft tissues of the plant to feed on the phloem.
Planococcus lilacinus has been detected at ports-of-entry numerous times and is one of the ten most frequently intercepted mealybugs.
All phloem-feeding, honeydew-producing pests have the potential to be tended by ants. The ants feed on the honeydew excreted by the pest and protect the pest from natural enemies. This protection can disrupt biological control programs.
Ben-Dov, Y. 2009. ScaleNet database: Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell)(http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Planococcuslilacinus.htm).
Cox, J.M., and A.C. Freeston. 1985. Identification of mealybugs of the genus Planococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) occurring on cacao throughout the world. J. of Nat. Hist. 19: 719-728 (http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/00222938500770431).
Gill, R.J. 1997. Coccid pests of important crops: Citrus, pp. 207-215. In Y. Ben-Dov, C.J. Hodgson (Eds.). World Crop Pests, Vol. 7B, Soft scale insects - their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier Science B.V.
Gullan, P.J. 2000. Identification of the immature instars of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in Australia Aust. J. Entomol. 39, 160-166. (http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/gullanandcranstonlab/Gullanpdfs/citrus.pdf).
Janick, J., and R.E. Paull (Eds.). 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit and nuts. CABI International Publishing, North America.
MacLeod, A. 2006. CSL Pest Risk Analysis for Planococcus lilacinus. (http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/plants/plantHealth/pestsDiseases/documents/plano.pdf).
Miller, D.R., G.L. Miller, G.W. Watson. 2002. Invasive species of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and their threat to U.S. agriculture. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 104: 825-836.
Miller, D.R., A. Rung, G.L. Venable, and R.J. Gill. 2007. Scale Insects: Identification tools for species of quarantine significance. CBIT Publishing, Queensland, Australia (http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/ScaleKeys/ScaleInsectsHome/ScaleInsectsHome.html).
Waite, G.K., and R.M. Barrera. 2002. Insect and mite pests, pp. 345-346. In A.W. Whiley, B. Schaffer, B.A. Schaffer, and B.N. Wolstenholme (eds.). The avocado: botany, production and uses. CABI publishing: Cambridge, MA.
Weeks, J.A., K.W. Martin, A.C. Hodges, and N.C. Leppla