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Citrus Pests


Citrus longhorned beetle


Scientific name


Anoplophora chinensis (Coloptera: Cerambicidae)

Other common names


white-spotted longicorn beetle, citrus-root cerambycid, black and white longicorn beetle

Similar species


Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

southern whitespotted sawyer, Monochamus titillator



United States: not known to occur, eradicated from Georgia, Hawaii, Washington, and Wisconsin.

Worldwide: China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Macau, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

Native to China, Japan, and Korea.

Diagnostic characteristics

  • Females, 35 mm (1.38 in.) in length, males, 25 mm (0.98 in.) in length.
  • Shiny black with numerous white spots.
  • Elongate.
  • Four wings. Forewings hardened (elytra). Hindwings are membranous and covered by the elytra at rest.
  • In females, elytra do not cover the entire abdomen and are rounded at the tips.
  • In males, elytra do cover the entire abdomen and taper towards the tips.
  • Antennae have 11 segments in both sexes.
  • Antennae of females approximately 1.2 times the length of the body; antennae of males are very long, approximately 1.7 to 2 times the body length, and have alternating white and black bands.
  • 27 - 38 mm (1.06 - 1.5 in.).
  • Off-white in color.
  • The forward top of the middle body segment (pronotum) is entirely black.
  • Four larval instars.
  • 5 mm (0.20 in.) at hatching; grows to 52 mm (2.0 in.) before pupation.
  • Creamy white with some yellow. Head is amber colored with black mouthparts.
  • Legless, round-headed grub.
  • 5.5 mm (0.22 in.) long and 1.7 mm (0.07 in.) in width, about the size of a grain of rice.
  • Creamy white initially, turning yellowish-brown when ready to hatch.
  • Smooth and elongate, approximately cylindrical with tapering at both ends.


Citrus hosts
  • Citrus limonia
  • king Mandarin, Citrus nobilis
  • pummelo, Citrus maxima
  • sour orange, Citrus aurantium
  • sweet orange, Citrus sinensis
Non-citrus hosts
  • Acacia spp.
  • alder, Alnus spp.
  • apple, Malus spp.
  • Aralia spp.
  • ash, Fraxinus spp.
  • Atalantia spp.
  • avocado, Persea spp.
  • birch, Betula spp.
  • Camellia spp.
  • Carya spp.
  • chestnut, Castanea spp.
  • Cotoneaster spp.
  • crepe myrtle, Lagerstroemia spp.
  • elm, Ulmus spp.
  • Fagus spp.
  • Ficus spp.
  • guava, Psidium spp.
  • hawthorn, Crateaegus spp.
  • Hibiscus spp.
  • holly, Illex ssp.
  • hornbeam, Carpinus spp.
  • horse-chestnut, Aesculus spp.
  • ivy, Hedera spp.
  • Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria spp.
  • jujube, Ziziphus spp.
  • kumquat, Fortunella spp.
  • Lindera spp.
  • lychee, Litchi spp.
  • loquat, Eriobotrya spp.
  • locust, Robinia spp.
  • maple, Acer spp.
  • mountain ash, Sorbus spp.
  • mulberry, Morus spp.
  • oak, Quercus spp.
  • paper mulberry, Broussonetia spp.
  • pear, Pyrus spp.
  • pigeon pea, Cajanus spp.
  • pine, Pinus spp.
  • poplar, Populus spp.
  • Rosa spp.
  • Rubus spp.
  • silky oak, Grevillea spp.
  • snowbell, Styrax spp.
  • sycamore, Platanus spp.
  • stone fruit, Prunus spp.
  • sumac, Rhus spp.
  • walnut, Juglans spp.
  • willow, Salix spp.

Host damage

  • Adults feed on leaves and petioles.
  • Can cause yellowing or drooping during hot weather but do not generally cause severe damage.
  • Damage to fibrous roots.
  • Tunneling into larger roots.
  • Eggs deposited under the bark of the trunk.
  • Adults feed on twigs but cause limited damage.
  • Larvae burrow into the wood interfering with water and nutrient transport.
  • Secondary infection is more likely after infestation.



In tropical and sub-tropical conditions, one generation per year is common. The insect takes 1 - 2 years to complete its development. Eggs are laid by the females in a 3 - 4 mm (0.12 - 0.16 in.) transverse slit in the bark of the lower trunk that resembles a reverse "T-shape." Larvae feed on inner bark, making irregular tunnels in the wood. The egg chamber is plugged by a sticky secretion from the female. It is estimated that 90% of the longhorned beetle larvae mature below ground. Typical signs of infestation include round or slightly oval emergence holes 6 - 9 mm (0.24 - 0.35 in.), piles of sawdust and excrement (frass), and oozing sap. The beetles are strong fliers.



The insect can arrive on woody plants. It was discovered in Tukwila, Washington in 2001 on a Japanese maple bonsai imported from Korea. Wood packing material may provide a means of dispersal.

The beetle is targeted for eradication in the United States.

Synonyms for the citrus long-horned beetle include Anoplophora malaisica.



Hérard, F., M. Ciampitti, M. Maspero, H. Krehan, U. Benker, C. Boegel, R. Schrage, L. Bouhot-Delduc, and P. Bialooki. 2006. Anoplophora species in Europe: infestations and management processes. EPPO Bulletin 36: 470-474. (

(IUCN/SSC) Invasive Species Specialist Group. 2009. Global Invasive Species Database: Anoplophora chinensis. (

(NAPPO) North American Plant Protection Organization. 2008. NAPPO phytosanitary alert system: Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771), citrus longhorned beetle discovered in two Washington state nurseries (U.S.A.). (

(NAPIS) National Agricultural Pest Information System. 2008. Pest tracker: reported status of citrus longhorned beetle Anoplophora chinensis (

(USDA APHIS) United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2009. Federal order: Anoplophora chinensis (Forster), the citrus longhorned beetle (CLB) and Anoplophora glabripennis, Asian longhorned beetle (ALB). (

Walker, K. 2008. Citrus longhorned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis) Pest and diseases image library. (

Gyeltshen, J. and A. Hodges. 2005. Featured creatures fact sheet: Citrus longhorned beetle (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Publication EENY-357. University of Florida. (



Weeks, J.A., K.W. Martin, A.C. Hodges, and N.C. Leppla


Citrus Pests
Content last updated June, 2012