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Citrus ID






861, Adams, Arizona 861, Atrog, Bajaura, Bajoura, Bin-chuan-gou-cheng, de Jericho, degli Ebrei, dei Giudei, di Genova, Ethrog, Hadar, Jericho, Judia, Mediterranean, Paradise Apple, S-1, Tronj (sec. Cottin 2002)

Cultivar or taxon


Citrus medica L. (sec. Mabberley 1997); Citrus medica L. var. ethrog Engl. (sec. Swingle and Reece 1967, Bayer et al. 2009 [expressing uncertainty]); Citrus limonimedica Lush. (sensu Tanaka sec. Cottin 2002)



Hodgson (1967) provided the following notes on the culitvar:

"Under the name of Etrog and its synonyms, at least two introductions from Palestine have been received in the United States which correspond with the above general characterization, although there are minor differences. They are evidently selections made for ritual purposes, though, as previously mentioned, any citron fruit that meets the specified requirements is acceptable. In neither has the per cent of persistent styles been above average.

Jericho Ethrog is said to be currently the most widely planted citron in Israel and is characterized by relatively small fruit size, oval shape, and deeply corrugated rind surface. It is reported to be of local origin and to reproduce true to type from seed even though monoembryonic, in which respect it is similar to several of the United States introductions."

The Chiefland Budwood Facility (2010) provided the following notes on the cultivar (clone DPI-223-861): "Received cutting from Dr. Steve Garnsey, USDA for use in indexing program. This selection is derived from the Arizona 861-S-1.



Crown compact or dense, not weeping. First-year twig surface glabrous; second- or third-year twig surface mottled; thorns straight; prickles absent or not persistent. Petiole glabrous, length short; wings absent. Leaflets one, margins bluntly toothed or serrate/serrulate, shade leaflet blades flat, sun leaflet blades weakly conduplicate. Scent of crushed leaflets freshly lemon-like. Fruit as broad as long or longer than broad; rind green-yellow (6), yellow (7-10), or yellow-orange (11); rind texture slightly rough (4-5) or medium rough (6-7); firmness leathery; navel absent; flesh yellow; taste sour.


Hodgson (1967) provided the following additional notes on the cultivar:


"Fruit medium-small, ellipsoid to fusiform or lemon-shaped; commonly with fairly distinct neck and prominent apical nipple; frequently with persistent style; seedy. Lemon-yellow at maturity. Rind thick and fleshy; surface slightly ribbed, somewhat rough, and bumpy. Flesh crisp and firm; low in juice content; flavor acid.


Tree smaller and less vigorous and productive than most citrons; leaves more round-pointed and downward cupped. Flower buds, flowers, and new growth purple-tinted."


Swingle and Reece (1967) provided the following additional notes of the cultivar: "Fruits small, ellipsoid to fusiform, rough, with a nipple ending in the persistent style with the persistent stigma."


The Chiefland Budwood Facility (2010) provided the following additional notes on the cultivar (clone DPI-223-861): "Importance: ceremonial fruit used in the Jewish Festival of Tabernacles, viroid testing. Description: Fragrant fruit, thick rind."



Bayer, R.J., D.J. Mabberley, C. Morton, C.H. Miller, I.K. Sharma, B.E. Pfeil, S. Rich, R. Hitchcock, and S. Sykes. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae) using nine cpDNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 96: 668–685.

Chiefland Budwood Facility. 2010. 2010 Annual report July 1, 2009 - June 30, 2010. Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration, Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Winter Haven.

Cottin, R. 2002. Citrus of the World: A citrus directory. Version 2.0. France: SRA INRA-CIRAD.

Löw, I. 1924-34. Die flora der Juden. Lowit, Vienna. 4 vol. (Rutaceae, 3: 260–321).

Mabberley, D.J. 1997. A classification for edible Citrus (Rutaceae). Telopea 7: 167–172.

Swingle, W.T. and P.C. Reece. 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives. In: Reuther, W., H.J. Webber, and L.D. Batchelor (eds.). The Citrus industry. Ed. 2. Vol. I. University of California, Riverside.



Search for this cultivar in NCBI Entrez, NCBI Nucleotide, or NCBI Expressed Sequence Tags

Additional information on this cultivar at University of California: Riverside Citrus Variety Collection (2 (S-1))


Citrus ID Edition 2
October, 2011