acanthoparia: in scarab larvae, the paired spiny lateral area of epipharynx; usually bordered by plegmatia

adventive: a species that has recently arrived to a new location; may or may not be invasive

anal lobe: fleshy lobe surrounding anus on the last abdominal segment of larvae

anal ring: in scarab larvae, a distinct ring-like suture found near the posterior of some Oryctes species

antenna: paired sensory organ on head, formed from numerous segments

antennal club: the enlarged portion of the antennae, usually towards the apex (end) of the antennae

antennomere: an individual segment of the antennae

anterior: the front or forward; opposite of posterior

anteromedial: middle of the front portion

apex: point or edge furthest from the body

arcuate: curved, arched, or bow-shaped

articulation: point where two body parts connect together, often allowing for movement


basal angle: in reference to the pronotum, the basal and lateral corner

basolateral: relating to base of the side part/portion

bi-lobed: possessed of two lobe-like structures

bidentate: a surface that is sharply notched, usually resulting in two tooth-like protrusions on each side of the notch

biforate: possessed of two pores or perforations

bifurcate: a process dividing into two points

bisinuate: possessing two sinuate edges or portions, with two curves

bulla: in scarab larvae, the sclerite that closes the trachea


canthus: a process extending over and sometimes dividing the eye

cardo: basal (first) segment of the maxilla

caudal: oriented towards the posterior

chaetoparia: inner, bristle-covered portion of the paria

chitinous: hardened, usually refers to part of the exoskeleton made of chitin

clithrum: in scarab larvae, a paired, sclerotized ring on the epipharynx that separates the paria and corypha

clypeal: of, or referring to, the clypeus

clypeolateral suture: suture along the lateral edge of the clypeus

clypeus: part of the head anterior to the frons; the most anterior portion in dorsal view

coprophage: an animal that feeds on feces or droppings

corypha: in scarab larvae, the area separating the epipharynx and clithra; may be lacking in some larvae

cribriform: sieve-like in appearance


decurved: bending downward

detritus: organic debris; particularly plant debris

dexiotorma: in scarab larvae, a paired, sclerotized ring on the epipharynx

diapause: a period of biological inactivity, or dormancy, sometimes called hibernation

dimorphic: occuring in two distinct forms

disc: the central upper surface of any body part (e.g., pronotum, elytron, clypeus, frons)

distad: oriented away from the body or the point of articulation with body

distal: situated away from the point of articulation, thus usually furthest from the body

diurnal: active during daylight hours

dorsal: of or relating to the upper surface; opposite of ventral

dorsoexterior: relating to the upper and outer part/portion


elytron: the hardened and chitinous wing-cover of a beetle that protect and overlie the flight wing

emarginate: notched or with a rounded section removed from the margin, often applied to the anterior margin of the clypeus

endemic: in biogeography, a species that occurs only in a given location

ensiform: sword-shaped; long and narrow in shape with pointed tip and sharp edges

epicranial stem: in scarab larvae, the stem of the epicranial suture dividing the top of the head

epipharynx: lobe on the interior surface of the labrum or clypeus


falcate: curved, sickle-like

femur: segment of the leg that is articulated to the body by the trochanter and bears the tibia at the distal end

folivore: an organism that feeds primarily upon plant foliage (leaves)

fovea: a depressed pit or indentation

frons: part of the head generally positioned between the eyes (posterior to the clypeus and anterior to the vertex) and visible dorsally

frontoclypeal suture: transverse suture between the clypeus and frons

frugivore: an organism that feeds primarily on fruit


galea: outer branch or lobe of the maxilla

gibbosity: a swelling or protuberance

glossa: paired terminal lobes of the labium

gracile: thin, slender, light of build

granulate: relating to a coarse, grainy surface texture


hamate: hook-like in shape

haptolachus: posterior of the epipharynx, behind the pedium

haptomerum: in larvae, the medio-anterior (middle of upper) portion of the epipharynx, composed of sensory spots

hastate: somewhat diamond-like in shape

helus: in scarab larvae, a coarse spine on or near the haptomerum

holarctic: a biogeographic region comprising of the temperate and arctic portions of Europe, Asia, and North America

humus: soil rich in organic matter


instar: in scarabs, one of the three larval growth phases (i.e., first instar, second instar, third instar), each ending with the larvae molting to the next phase

invasive: a species that has recently arrived to a new location, usually via human activity, causing notable economic and/or ecological damage


keel: longitudinal, ridge-like ventral process


labrum: upper lip that covers the mandibles and is located ventrally relative to the clypeus

lacinia: inner portion of the maxilla

lamellate: in reference to the antenna in which the club is formed from closely opposed, leaf-like or fan-shaped surfaces

larva: the immature form of an insect; in scarabs, also called grub or white grub; preceded by the egg stage, followed by the pupal stage


macrosensilla: small sensory spot(s) located on the epipharynx

maculation: markings; particularly in reference to blurred or blotchy markings

mandible: The crushing or chewing portion of an insects mouthparts

maxilla: set of paired mouthparts located posterior to the mandibles

maxillary articulating membrane: membrane that covers the region where the maxillae articulates with the head

maxillary palpus: multi-segmented sensory organ/appendage of the maxilla

medioanterior: relating to the middle of the upper portion/part

mesally: at or near midline of body

mesophoba: the middle phoba

metasternal keel: ridge-like process on underside of thorax

molar area: grinding area of the mandible, behind scissorial area

monostichous: occurring in single vertical row

morph: in scarabs, refers to different color varieties within a species


ocular canthus: a process extending over and sometimes dividing the eye

oncyli: in scarab larvae, pair of asymmetrical sclerotized processes on hypopharynx

opaque: not transparent, cannot be seen through


paired: in relation to bilateral symmetry: occurring on both sides of the body

palidium: paired group(s) of recumbent (reclining) spines, usually occurring in rows; part of the raster

palus: in scarab larvae, a straight, pointed spine, particularly as relates to the raster

papilla: a small fleshy projection or rounded protuberance

parameres: sclerotized distal structures of the male genitalia

paria: in scarab larvae, a lateral, paired area of the epipharynx extending from the clithrum and haptomerum to the dexiotorma

petiole: stalk of a leaf

phoba: in scarab larvae, an area of dense, often forked setae at the posterior inner edge of the paria

phytophagous: an organism which feeds upon living plant tissues/materials

plegmatium: in scarab larvae, a paired, lateral region with a somewhat sclerotized surface bordered by marginal spines with acanthoparia

polystichous: arranged in multiple rows or series

posterior: towards the rear end; opposite of anterior

presuptular: in scarab larvae, occuring before the septula(s) of the raster

pronotum: the dorsal surface of the thorax

proplegmatia: in scarab larvae, an area of folded, parallel ridges before the plegmatium

prothoracic shield: the chitinous plate behind the head of larvae

punctate: a surface texture characterized by numerous puncture-like marks or impressions, often described in terms of puncture size, shape, and density

punctation: relating to a punctate surface texture

pupa: the intermediate stage between the larva and the adult for insects with complete development

pygidium: the last abdominal segment, usually exposed, not completely covered by the elytra

pyriform: pear-shaped


quadrate: square-like in shape


raster: in scarab larvae, a complex of setose, spiny, and bare areas on the ventral surface of the last abdominal segment

recumbent: lying down, reclined

recurved: bending backwards

reflexed: margin that curves upward

rugose: having a wrinkled or creased texture or appearance


sap flow: a plant wound resulting in sap flowing (bleeding) to the plants surface

scape: basal (first) segment of the antennae

scissorial tooth: tooth-like projection on the scissorial area of the mandible

sclerite: hard, external plate of the exoskeleton

scutellum: the triangular portion of the thorax between the bases of the elytra

septula: narrow bare area(s) of raster

seta: small, hair-like structure

setose: covered in setae

sinuate: gently curved (specifically of margins or edges); often in reference to the clypeus

spiracles: opening on the abdomen or thorax through which air enters and exits the body

spur: movable, spine-like process, sometimes mobile, often found at or near the tibial apices

sternite: the ventral part of a thoracic or abdominal segment

sternum: ventral surface of the thorax

stipes: lobe-bearing second segment of the maxilla

stria: a longitudinal depressed line or furrow, often formed from numerous punctures that extends the length of an elytron

subquadrate: somewhat quadrate in shape


tarsomere: one of the sub-segments of the tarsus

tarsus: the distal part of an insect leg attached to the tibia and consisting of five sub-segments in scarab beetles; bears the tarsal claws

teges: in larvae, groupings of setae

tibia: a segment of the leg articulated with the tarsus and femur

tomentose: hairs or setae that are flattened, dense, and matted in appearance

tooth: a pointed process from an appendage or margin, often in reference to the tibia

torma: in scarab larvae, sclerotized structures on the ends of the clypeolateral suture extending towards the mesal line

trachea: spiral-ringed, elastic air tube for respiration

tramp species: species that have been spread around the world inadvertently by human commerce

transverse: extending horizontally across a surface

trochanter: a segment of the leg articulated with the femur and coxa

truncate: appearing cut-off or suddenly shortened

tubercle: a small, conical knob or horn-like protuberance

tumosity: mound-like protuberance or puffed-up appearance


uncus: in scarab larvae, a hooked process on the distal margin of the maxilla


ventral: of or relating to the lower surface; opposite of dorsal