Anomala albopilosa

Potential Invader

Common name(s)

green chafer, white-haired leaf chafer

Taxonomy

Family: Scarabaeidae Subfamily: Rutelinae Genus: Anomala Species: Anomala albopilosa (Hope, 1839)

Adult diagnosis

Total body length 15.0–26.0 mm (0.59–1.02 in). Body shape ovate. Color rich green, slightly shiny; rarely reddish or olive colored. Front tibia with two external teeth; apical tooth long and slightly decurved in female (may be worn in older specimens), often shorter in male; basal tooth evident in male and female. Front inner claw bifurcate; bifurcate claw weakly sinuate in male, simple in female. Hind tibia with inner margin simple, not greatly dilated at the middle.

Larval diagnosis

Total body length 15.0–26.0 mm (0.59–1.02 in). Body shape ovate. Color rich green, slightly shiny; rarely reddish or olive colored. Front tibia with two external teeth; apical tooth long and slightly decurved in female (may be worn in older specimens), often shorter in male; basal tooth evident in male and female. Front inner claw bifurcate; bifurcate claw weakly sinuate in male, simple in female. Hind tibia with inner margin simple, not greatly dilated at the middle.

Native range

East Asia. This scarab is known from the four major islands of Japan (Kysushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hokkaido) (Kobayashi and Matsumoto, 2011), the Ryuku Islands, Korea, and Taiwan (Arakaki et al., 2015).

Plant host(s)

The larvae of this species feed on the roots of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) (Hiramatsu et al., 2001), pines (Pinus spp.) (Nitto and Taohibana, 1955), sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatu), and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) (Arakaki et al., 2015).

Life history

(Arakaki et al., 2015): This species has one generation per year, and adults emerge from May to late July. Eggs are deposited in soil by June. First instar larvae emerge by July and third instars by October. Overwintering occurs in the third instar, and pupation usually begins by May. Larvae live in soil and feed on the roots of several plant species.

Pest potential

Significant. In Japan, larvae of this scarab are known pests (Arakaki et al., 2015). In the Ryuku Islands, Anomala albopilosa is a particularly significant pest of sugarcane with periodic outbreaks causing severe damage to sugarcane production of Okinawa (Arakaki et al., 2015).

Status in Hawaii

Recorded, not established. This species has been recorded in Hawaii at least twice, with records from 1955-56 and 1971-72 (USDA, 1957; USDA, 1974). In both cases specimens were found on aircraft flying into Hawaii from Japan.

Status in Guam

Not established or recorded. There are no records of this species from Guam.

Potential distribution and dispersal pathway

This species is attracted to lights at night, and it is likely that it would be attracted to well-lit ports and airports. This would allow for hitchhiking on marine or air cargo. Indeed, this species has entered Hawaii at least twice aboard aircraft (USDA, 1957; USDA, 1974).

Similar species

Anomala albopilosa is one of five Anomala species recorded from Hawaii and Guam, along with Anomala orientalis, Anomala sulcatula, Anomala viridana, and Anomala cuprea. It can be separated from the other species by examination of the bifurcate male front claw (weakly sinuate in A. albopilosa versus strongly sinuate in A. cuprea and A. viridana, curved but non-sinuate in A. orientalis and A. sulcatula), male hind tibia (A. albopilosa not greatly dilated at the middle on the inner margin versus inner margin greatly dilated at the middle in A. sulcatula), and total body length (A. albopilosa 15.0–26.0 mm [0.59–1.02 in] versus less than 13.0 mm [0.51 in] in A. orientalis).

Other names (synonyms)

Anomala immarginata Reitter

Report your observation

In Hawaii, this species represents a new invasive species. Prevent the spread of this species by reporting your observation at our iNaturalist project.

Anomala albopilosa female; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa female; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa female; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa female; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male foretibia; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male foretibia; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male foreclaw; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male foreclaw; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa female foretibia; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa female foretibia; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male genitalia, dorsal view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male genitalia, dorsal view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male genitalia, lateral view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Anomala albopilosa male genitalia, lateral view; photo by E.L. Engasser

distribution map for Anomala albopilosa

distribution map for Anomala albopilosa