Adoretus sinicus

USDA Regulated Pest

Common name(s)

Chinese rose beetle, Chinese rose chafer

Taxonomy

Family: Scarabaeidae Subfamily: Rutelinae Genus: Adoretus Species: Adoretus sinicus Burmeister, 1855

DNA barcode

DNA barcode available: specimen information

Adult diagnosis

Total body length 10.0–12.0 mm (0.39–0.47 in). Body elongate oval. Color brownish with numerous distinctive, cream-white setae; setae sometimes missing in worn specimens. Front tibia with 3 teeth on external margin; male teeth pointed; female teeth comparatively rounded; teeth may be worn in older specimens. Front tarsomere with length of segments 2–4 (combined) more than 1.5 times that of segment 1 in male; front tarsomere with length of segments 2–4 (combined) less than 1.2 times that of segment 1 in female. Last sternite of female with apex rounded posteriorly; apex weakly quadrate in male.

Larval diagnosis

(Habeck, 1962): Grub C-shaped, not hump-backed, cylindrical, whitish. Maxilla with galea and lacinia fused. Lacinia of maxilla with 3 well-developed terminal unci. Mandible with a ventral, elongate, oval, stridulatory area consisting of a numerous transverse, granular ridges; left mandible with outer scissorial tooth wider than inner tooth; right mandible with teeth equal in width but outer tooth projects farther than inner. Maxillary stridulatory teeth with apical points anteriorly projecting. Plegmatia present. Haptomerum of epipharynx with a dense, transverse row of 5–8 (usually 6) heli. Last antennal segment with single dorsal sensory spot. Respiratory plate C-shaped with numerous oval to round openings surrounding a prominent oval bulla. Raster with a subtriangular teges of hamate setae; palidia absent. Anal opening slightly curved, transverse. Lower anal lip with 8 stout setae, 10 long slender setae and 10 short slender setae.

Native range

Japan and Taiwan. Although this species is native to Japan and Taiwan (Mau and Kessing, 1991), it has spread widely and is now established in a great number of locations including Cambodia, the Caroline Islands, China, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam (McQuate and Jameson, 2011).

Plant host(s)

This species has been recorded feeding on over 500 species of plants (Hession et al., 1994), including such economically important species as broccoli (Brassica oleracea), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), cacao (Theobroma cacao), Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), chiso (Perilla frutescens), corn (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium barbadense), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), eggplant (Solanum melongena), ginger (Zingiber officinale), grape (Vitis labrusca), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), okra (Hibiscus esculentus), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki), raspberry (Rubus niveus), roses (Rosa spp.), salak palm (Salacca zalacca), soybean (Glycine max), star fruit (Averrhoa carambola), strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and tea (Camellia sinensis) (McQuate and Jameson, 2011). In Hawaii, this species is also known to damage several endangered native plants including kauila (Colubrina oppositifolia), hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus distans), and ko’oloa’ula (Abutilon menziesii) (Howarth, 1985).

Life history

Severe. This species is a known biosecurity threat with a long history of biological invasion. It has spread continuously over the past 120 years with recent records coming from specimens intercepted in India (Bhawane et al., 2012) and Australia (Stanway et al., 2001). It is officially recognized by the USDA as a class B pest (USDA APHIS, 2012), and it is officially regarded as a pest with high risk of introduction in California (Cosner, 2013). It damages a great range of economically important plants, causing severe and economically significant damage (McQuate and Jameson, 2011).

Pest potential

Severe. This species is a known biosecurity threat with a long history of biological invasion. It has spread continuously over the past 120 years with recent records coming from specimens intercepted in India (Bhawane et al., 2012) and Australia (Stanway et al., 2001). It is officially recognized by the USDA as a class B pest (USDA APHIS, 2012), and it is officially regarded as a pest with high risk of introduction in California (Cosner, 2013). It damages a great range of economically important plants, causing severe and economically significant damage (McQuate and Jameson, 2011).

Status in Hawaii

Established. This species is found on all the major islands of Hawaii (Nishida, 2002). It became established in the late 19th century, with the earliest record dating to 1891 (Riley and Howard, 1893). By 1893, it was “rapidly becoming a most serious pest” (Riley and Howard, 1893). Across its range, Adoretus sinicus may be found in many habitats including urban, agricultural, and wilderness areas (García-Moll, 2013).

Status in Guam

Established. This species has long been established in Guam, with the first report dating to 1949 (Pemberton, 1954).

Potential distribution and dispersal pathway

It is thought that Adoretus sinicus first arrived to Hawaii as larvae or eggs transported in soil associated with plants imported from Asia (Ohaus, 1935; Pemberton, 1964). Adults are attracted to dim lights at night (though oddly may be deterred by bright lights), and it is possible that they would be attracted to artificialy lit docks or airports and hitchhike aboard freight and cargo. Indeed, this species has been intercepted in Australia on maritime containers (Stanway et al., 2001). This beetle is very common in Hawaii (pers. observation), and it should be regarded as having a very high likelihood of spreading to the southern U.S. and U.S. territories, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Similar species

This species is extremely similar to the closely related Adoretus compressus. The two species cannot reliably be separated based on external morphology. Identification requires dissection and examination of the male genitalia.

Other names (synonyms)

Adoroleptus sinicus (Burmeister)

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Adoretus sinicus male; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male foretibia; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus male foretibia; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus female foretibia; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus female foretibia; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus male sternite, ventral view; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus male sternite, ventral view; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus female sternite, ventral view; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus female sternite, ventral view; photo by M.L. Jameson

Adoretus sinicus male genitalia, caudal view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male genitalia, caudal view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male genitalia, lateral view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus male genitalia, lateral view; photo by E.L. Engasser

Adoretus sinicus mating on foliage at night; photo by P. Randall

Adoretus sinicus mating on foliage at night; photo by P. Randall

characteristic Adoretus sinicus leaf damage on wax apple; photo by M.L. Jameson

characteristic Adoretus sinicus leaf damage on wax apple; photo by M.L. Jameson

characteristic Adoretus sinicus damage on a leaf; photo by E.L. Engasser

characteristic Adoretus sinicus damage on a leaf; photo by E.L. Engasser

distribution map for Adoretus sinicus

distribution map for Adoretus sinicus