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Species name

Diabrotica adelpha Harold 1875: 92
 

Type locality

Guatemala

 

Type depository

MNHN, lectotype, female, verified

 

Synonyms

flaviventris Jacoby 1887: 517 (type locality: Mexico, San Juan Bautista; type depository: BMNH, lectotype, female, verified) new synonym

picticornis Horn 1893: 90 (type locality: Texas, USA; type depository: ANSP, holotype, female) synonym of Diabrotica tibialis Jacoby (Smith, 1966)

tibialis Jacoby 1887: 512 (type locality: Mexico, Jalapa; type depository: BMNH, lectotype, female, verified) new synonym

 

Diagnosis

Body length 5.8-7.4. Body width 3.0-4.2. Head basic coloration black. Male antennae serrate, uniformly yellow, bi- or tricolored, antennomeres 1-3, and 9-10 uniformly yellow or yellow ocher, antennomeres 4 - 8 uniformly cinnamon brown or gradually infuscated by brown, antennomere 11 completely dark (brussels brown) or dark apically, Female antennae filiform or serrate (sometimes only slightly so). Maxillary palpi yellow, yellow ocher or amber brown, labrum black. Pronotum yellow, sulphur yellow, yellow ocher or testaceous, subquadrate, nonfoveate, shagreen absent. Scutellum piceous, black or amber brown. Basic color of elytra yellow or rufous, with 2 black bands. One yellow macula of the irregular triangular shape is in center of basal band on each elytron. Posterior margin of the band is produced laterally and slightly distally like a handle. Distal band is narrow, arcuate, may be reduced to two round or drop-shaped spots. Elytrae of D. flaviventris are almost entirely testaceous with appeared outlines of the bands. Color of bands black, humeral calli black, epipleura completely yellow or completely rufous, not sulcate. Sutural angle of elytra obtuse-angled or dentiform, punctation dense, fine. Abdomen yellow or yellow ocher. Tarsi coloration black, chestnut, yellow ocher or ochraceous-orange. Tibia uniformly black, yellow ocher or bicolored: yellow, outer edge with piceous or testaceous line, sometimes extensively darkened. Femora uniform yellow or yellow ocher. Aedeagus asymmetric. Number of internal sac sclerites 2.

 

Known distribution

Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama. One female in the USNM collection was collected in the Texas, USA, in 1993. The only female could be found occasionally introduced with feeding substrate. Therefore this record need to be confirmed by the new data.

 

Host plants

There are the records of Diabrotica tibialis Jacoby on Verbesina L. (Asteraceae), Beta vulgaris L., cucumber, different species of Cucurbita L., horse bean (Vicia faba L.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), cotton, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Zea mays L., tomato, potato (Clark et al., 2004). One specimen of D. adelpha in the USNM collection was collected on Asparagus officinalis L. and one on Sphaeralcea A.St.-Hil.

 

Remarks

Smith and Lawrence (1967) could recognize the only specimen (female) of D. adelpha in the Allard collection in the MNHN as part of Harold's original series. They designated it as the lectotype. The male in Allard collection in the MNHN, bearing the labels (1) [Diabrotica adelpha Harold] handwritten and (2) [Ex Musaeo Quedenfeldt] white machine-printed, is morphologically identical with the type female. We based our concept of male of D. adelpha on this specimen. The male genitalia have been examined in this male, in 6 paralectotype males of D. flaviventris in BMNH and MCZ collections, and in 4 paralectotype males of D. tibialis in BMNH and MCZ collections. Male genitalia of additional specimens of all three species have been examined from the USNM collection. The armament of the internal sac of the male aedeagus is identical in all three species. The species are very similar in coloration patterns. Jacoby wrote (1887): "This [D. adelpha] and several of the following species [D. tibialis, D. brunneosignata, etc.] are extremely closely allied, their characters of distinction being slight and variable". Only two substantial differences in coloration are recognizable on the type females of D. adelpha and D. tibialis: in D. adelpha the pronotum is yellow or yellow ocher, in D. tibialis - testaceous; in D. adelpha tibia are yellow or yellow ocher, in D. tibialis - black or chestnut. After study of the large series of these two species we could recognize a few transitional coloration patterns of tibia from uniformly yellow through bicolored (yellow, outer edge with piceous or testaceous line, sometimes extensively darkened) to uniformly black or chestnut. The outlines of the bands on elytrae of all three species are very similar. The D. flaviventris with almost entirely testaceous elytrae is probable melanistic color morph of the same species. No substantial differences were recognized in the body size or habitus of three species. Hereby we place D. tibialis and D. flaviventris as synonyms of D. adelpha .

 

Potential problems with identification

Smith and Lawrence (1967) could recognize the only specimen (female) of D. adelpha in the Allard collection in the MNHN as part of Harold's original series. They designated it as the lectotype. The male in Allard collection in the MNHN, bearing the labels (1) [Diabrotica adelpha Harold] handwritten and (2) [Ex Musaeo Quedenfeldt] white machine-printed, is morphologically identical with the type female. We based our concept of male of D. adelpha on this specimen. The male genitalia have been examined in this male, in 6 paralectotype males of D. flaviventris in BMNH and MCZ collections, and in 4 paralectotype males of D. tibialis in BMNH and MCZ collections. Male genitalia of additional specimens of all three species have been examined from the USNM collection. The armament of the internal sac of the male aedeagus is identical in all three species. The species are very similar in coloration patterns. Jacoby wrote (1887): "This [D. adelpha] and several of the following species [D. tibialis, D. brunneosignata, etc.] are extremely closely allied, their characters of distinction being slight and variable". Only two substantial differences in coloration are recognizable on the type females of D. adelpha and D. tibialis: in D. adelpha the pronotum is yellow or yellow ocher, in D. tibialis - testaceous; in D. adelpha tibia are yellow or yellow ocher, in D. tibialis - black or chestnut. After study of the large series of these two species we could recognize a few transitional coloration patterns of tibia from uniformly yellow through bicolored (yellow, outer edge with piceous or testaceous line, sometimes extensively darkened) to uniformly black or chestnut. The outlines of the bands on elytrae of all three species are very similar. The D. flaviventris with almost entirely testaceous elytrae is probable melanistic color morph of the same species. No substantial differences were recognized in the body size or habitus of three species. Hereby we place D. tibialis and D. flaviventris as synonyms of D. adelpha .