About bees

Classification

The classification below shows the placement of all taxonomic entities used in this tool. Note that at this time, the tool only covers species that belong to the genus Apis (Family Apidae) and genera that belong to the family Megachilidae. The figure below shows a cladogram of bee family-level relationships based on one of the phylogenetic hypotheses concerning the relationships of the different bee families (Danforth et al. 2006; Michener 2007).

Hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among bee families (Danforth 2006, Michener 2007).
Hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among bee families (Danforth et al. 2006; Michener 2007).

Family Apidae
    Subfamily Apinae – includes honey bees (Apis), bumble bees, and others
         Tribe Apini – honey bees
              Apis (Linnaeus, 1758)
                 Apis (Apis) (Linnaeus, 1758)
                     A. cerana (Fabricius, 1793)
                     A. koschevnikovi (Enderlein, 1906)
                     A. mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758)
                     A. nigrocincta (Smith, 1861)
                     A. nuluensis (Tingek, Koeniger & Koeniger, 1996)
                 Apis (Megapis) (Ashmead, 1904)
                      A. dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)
                     A. laboriosa (Smith, 1871)
                 Apis (Micrapis) (Ashmead, 1904)
                     A. andreniformis (Smith, 1858)
                     A. florea (Fabricius, 1787)

Family Megachilidae
         Tribe Anthidiini
             Acedanthidium (Michener, 2000)
             Afranthidium (Michener, 1948)
             Afrostelis (Cockerell, 1931)
             Anthidiellum (Cockerell, 1904)
             Anthidioma (Pasteels, 1984)
             Anthidium (Fabricius, 1804)
             Anthodioctes (Holmberg, 1903)
             Apianthidium (Pasteels, 1969)
             Austrostelis (Michener & Griswold, 1994)
             Aztecanthidium (Michener & Ordway, 1964)
             Bathanthidium (Mavromoustakis, 1953)
             Benanthis (Pasteels, 1969)
             Cyphanthidium (Pasteels, 1969)
             Dianthidium (Cockerell, 1900)
             Duckeanthidium (Moure & Hurd, 1960)
             Eoanthidium (Popov, 1950)
             Epanthidium (Moure, 1947)
             Euaspis (Gerstäcker, 1857)
             Hoplostelis (Dominique, 1898)
             Hypanthidioides (Moure, 1947)
             Hypanthidium (Cockerell, 1904)
             Icteranthidium (Michener, 1948)
             Indanthidium (Michener & Griswold, 1994)
             Ketianthidium (Urban, 1999)
             Larinostelis (Michener & Griswold, 1994)
             Notanthidium (Isensee, 1927)
             Pachyanthidium (Friese, 1905)
             Paranthidium (Cockerell & Cockerell, 1901)
             Plesianthidium (Cameron, 1905)
             Pseudoanthidium (Friese, 1898)
             Rhodanthidium (Isensee, 1927)
             Serapista (Cockerell, 1904)
             Stelis (Panzer, 1806)
             Trachusa (Panzer, 1804)
             Trachusoides (Michener & Griswold, 1994)
             Xenostelis (Baker, 1999)
         Tribe Aspidosmiini
             Aspidosmia (Brauns, 1926)
         Tribe Dioxyini
             Aglaoapis (Cameron, 1901)
             Allodioxys (Popov, 1947)
             Dioxys (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825)
             Ensliniana (Alfken, 1938)
             Eudioxys (Mavromoustakis, 1963)
             Metadioxys (Popov, 1947)
             Paradioxys (Mocsary, 1894)
             Prodioxys (Friese, 1914)
         Tribe Fideliini
             Fidelia (Friese, 1899)
             Neofidelia (Moure & Michener, 1955)
         Tribe Lithurgini
             Austrothurgus (Gonzalez & Engel, 2013)
             Lithurgopsis (Fox, 1902)
             Lithurgus (Berthold, 1827)
             Microthurge (Michener, 1983)
             Trichothurgus (Moure, 1949)
         Tribe Megachilini
             Coelioxys (Latreille, 1809)
             Gronoceras (Cockerell, 1907)
             Heriadopsis (Cockerell, 1931)
             Matangapis (Baker & Engel, 2006)
             Megachile (Latreille, 1802)
             Noteriades (Cockerell, 1931)
             Radoszkowskiana (Popov, 1955)
         Tribe Osmiini
             Afroheriades (Peters, 1970)
             Ashmeadiella (Cockerell, 1897)
             Atoposmia (Cockerell, 1935)
             Bekilia (Benoist, 1962)
             Chelostoma (Latreille, 1809)
             Haetosmia (Popov, 1952)
             Heriades (Spinola, 1808)
             Hofferia (Tkalců, 1984)
             Hoplitis (Klug, 1807)
             Ochreriades (Mavromoustakis, 1956)
             Osmia (Panzer, 1806)
             Othinosmia (Michener, 1943)
             Protosmia (Ducke, 1900)
             Pseudoheriades (Peters, 1970)
             Stenoheriades (Tkalců, 1984)
             Wainia (Tkalců, 1980)
             Xeroheriades (Griswold, 1986)
         Tribe Pararhophitini
             Pararhophites (Friese, 1898)