bulrush, cattail, cumbungi
Species commonly cultivated
Typha angustifolia L. (America)
T. domingensis Pers. (cosmopolitan)
T. orientalis C. Presl (Pacific, Australia, New Zealand)
T. latifolia L. (U.S., Europe)
T. minima Funck ex Hoppe (Eurasia)
Several species have been introduced in countries around the world. Typha spp. appear to be highly adaptable and establish easily in most regions.
Typha spp. grow prolifically and are often considered pests; they block waterways and choke artificial marshlands.
Perennial. Stems erect, connected by creeping rhizome. Leaves distichous, sheathed basally, alternate, forming a compact basal rosette; leaf blade linear, emergent; margin entire. Inflorescence a single, cylindrical spike; upper flowers female; lower flowers male; flowers densely packed, individual flowers barely recognizable. Dispersal by numerous aerial and floating seeds and stolons.
all types of shallow waterways and wet ground
often forms dense monocultures in shallow water; an important refuge for many animals associated with waterways