Authors and Acknowledgements



Shaun WInterton, Plant Pest Diagnostics Center, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California

Jamie Burnett, formerly at Plant Pest Diagnostics Center, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California

Julia Scher, USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP), Sacramento, California


Amanda Redford, USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP), Fort Collins, Colorado

For feedback or questions about content, please contact Shaun Winterton (

For feedback or questions about access or functionality, or for permission to use images, contact Julia Scher (


Ronald Stinner and the North Carolina State University Center for Integrated Pest Management (CIPM) were instrumental in facilitating the development of the Aquarium and Pond Plants of the World first edition. The authors of Editions 2.0 and 3.0 received consistent support from CDFA’s Plant Pest Diagnostics Center (PPDC), under the direction of Umesh Kodira, as well as from PPDC's Seed Lab , under the direction of Deborah Meyer.

Critical evaluation and feedback from peer and end-user reviews of draft versions of APPW were essential in producing a quality product. We thank:

For the first edition, Larry Fowler (S&T, retired), Robert Haynes (University of Alabama), Surrey Jacobs (Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney), Alexander Krings (North Carolina State University Herbarium), Polly Lehtonen (APHIS, retired), Janice Swab (Meredith College), and Kevin Thiele (Eubio Consulting and University of Western Australia) for their reviews, and to Bruce Hanson, Charles Niautou and Adrian Tappin for helpful comments.

For Edition 2.0, Lars Anderson (University of California, Davis), David Bergendorf (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service), David Bitzel (APHIS), Nehalem Breiter (formerly of S&T), Vickie Brewster (APHIS), Surrey Jacobs (Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney), Dean Kelch (CDFA), and Terrence Walters (S&T) for in-depth and thorough reviews, and to Cheryl Blomquist, Kevin Downing, Chris Fernandez, and Don Joley (all currently or formerly of CDFA-PPDC) for beta testing the interactive identification key.

For Edition 3.0, Cavan Allen (Smithsonian Institution), Jon O'Brien (California Department of Parks and Recreation), Gwen Harden (Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney), John Madsen (USDA Agricultural Research Service), and Gerald Pottern (Mogensen Mitigation, Inc.).

We thank Brandon Dewey (formerly of Colorado State University) for his help in producing the new website design for Edition 2.1.

Thank you to those who provided plant specimens, or access to plants, to photograph, especially: Robert Olesen (U.S.), Brad McLane of Florida Aquatic Nurseries, and Andrew Fraser and Andrea King of Pisces Enterprises (Australia).

Gerhard Keuck (Germany) kindly permitted use of images of scanned plates from "Carl Axel Magnus Lindman: Bilder ur Nordens Flora (1901-1905)."

Many high quality line drawings from the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants were used, with permission, to illustrate many genera in APPW.

Thanks to Yu Takeuchi (APHIS) for help with language translations and Heather Hartzog (APHIS) for help with line drawings.

Arthur O. Tucker (Delaware State University, retired) generously provided information and clarified nomenclature for the genus Mentha, in particular Mentha aquatica, and determined the identity of numerous digital photographs.

Dean Kelch (botanist, CDFA [formerly at PPDC]) deserves particular mention for consistently offering advice and expertise in response to frequent questions regarding taxonomic and morphological problems, throughout the development of APPW Edition 2.0. His input was crucial to the advancement and completion of this edition.

We thank the many photographers, organizations, and businesses who generously gave permission for use of their digital images in APPW.

A special thank you to Damian Barnier, Geoff Norton, Mathew Taylor, and Kevin Thiele (all currently or formerly of Identic, producers of Lucid) for their help and guidance during development and publication of the APPW 1.0 Lucid key. Matt and Damian in particular were outstanding for their consistent, expert technical support, and seemingly limitless patience.

Shaun has a last, very important thank you: to my wife Ann Marie, for her patience during development of this tool, especially her tolerance of my constantly leaping out of almost-stopped vehicles to wade into boggy ditches to photograph "one more aquatic plant."